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1.
Country life in the digital era : comparison of technology use and cybercrime victimization between residents of rural and urban environments in Slovenia
Igor Bernik, Kaja Prislan Mihelič, Anže Mihelič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Cybercrime is one of the most significant security challenges of the 21st century. However, official statistics do not provide insights into its prevalence and nature. Representative cross-sectional field studies may help fill this gap, focusing on differences between urban and rural technology users. We (a) investigated the association between the purpose of computers and other electronic device usage and perceived vulnerability, (b) compared the differences in the purpose of computers or other electronic device use and perceived vulnerability, and (c) compared the perceived cyber victimization between residents of rural and urban areas. We conducted a field study that resulted in a representative sample of the Republic of Slovenia in Europe. We found several significant differences in the purpose of technology use and perceived cyber victimization. Furthermore, the results indicate that the purpose of technology use is somehow associated with perceived vulnerability in cyberspace; however, such associations are different in cyberspace than in the material world.
Keywords: cyber victimization, cybercrime, rural environment, technology use, perceived vulnerability
Published in DKUM: 31.07.2023; Views: 373; Downloads: 43
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2.
How does educational background shape the perception of cybercrime? : a survey of computer science and law students on selected controversial issues
Andrzej Uhl, Andrzej Porębski, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The technical dimensions of cybercrime and its control have rendered it an inconvenient subject for many criminologists. Adopting either semantic (legal) or syntactic (technical) perspectives on cyber criminality, as theorised by McGuire, can lead to disparate conclusions. The aim of this paper is to examine how these perspectives and corresponding educational backgrounds shape opinions on cybercrime and cybercrime policy. Design/Methods/Approach: To address this research question, we first provide a non-exhaustive review of existing critical literature on a few selected controversial issues in the field, including cyber vigilantism, file sharing websites, and political hacking. Based on these areas, we developed an online survey that we then distributed among students of law and computer science, as well as to a ‘non-cyber contrast group’ including mainly students of philology and philosophy. Findings: Statistical analysis revealed differences in the way respondents approached most of the issues) to most of the issues, which were sometimes moderated by the year of studies and gender. In general, the respondents were highly supportive of internet vigilantism, prioritised the cybercrimes of the powerful, and encouraged open access to cybersecurity. The computer science students expressed a lower fear of cybercrime and approved of hacktivism more frequently, while the law students affirmed a conservative vision of copyrights and demonstrated higher punitiveness towards cyber offenders. Interestingly, the computer science students were least likely to translate their fear of cybercrime into punitive demands. Research Limitations/Implications: The findings support the distinction between various narratives about cybercrime by showing the impact of professional socialization on the expressed opinions. They call for a consciously interdisciplinary approach to the subject and could be complemented by a comprehensive qualitative inquiry in the perception of cyber threats. Originality/Value: The authors wish to contribute to the understanding of the construction of cybercrime on the border of criminal law and computer science. Additionally, we present original data which reveal different views on related issues held by potential future professionals in both areas.
Keywords: cybercrime, cyber victimisation, cyber punitiveness, internet crime
Published in DKUM: 27.01.2023; Views: 450; Downloads: 9
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3.
Perception of cyber crime in Slovenia
Maja Dimc, Bojan Dobovšek, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of the pilot research regarding the perception of cybercrime in Slovenia. Design/Methods/Approach: The study focused on the research of the perception of cybercrime among the general public, as well as the members of the law enforcement agencies. Findings: The development of information and communication technologies critically influences all aspects of our lives, and consequently the characteristics of crime have adapted to the new form of operation in the virtual world. Cybercrime is the new way of breaking the law, and in order to implement successful preventive strategies it is of crucial importance to understand the perception of the general public, as well as the perception of the members of law enforcement agencies regarding cybercrime. The pilot study was performed on a smaller group of individuals (approximately half were the representatives of the general public, while the rest were the representatives of law enforcement agencies) in the form of in-depth interviews. The findings of the pilot research were alarming, since the majority of the interviewees greatly differentiate between certain forms of crime performed in the cyberspace as opposed to the same form of crime performed in real life i.e. the act of stealing, piracy in particular, is unacceptable in the real world and at the same time only natural in the virtual world. Furthermore, the pilot research displayed serious lack of awareness regarding different forms of cybercrime among the general public, as well as the members of law enforcement agencies, and consequently also poor understanding of legislation pertinent to cybercrime. Based on the results of the pilot research it is evident that it is of crucial importance to raise the awareness and understanding among the general public and increase the knowledge of the members of law enforcement agencies regarding cybercrime and its consequences in our everyday life. Research limitations/implications: The results are not generalizable due to the small group of interviewees. Consequently, future research will include a larger group of interviewees and will combine both in-depth interviews as well as questionnaires. Practical implications: The article represents a useful source of information for individuals working in this field as well as the general public. Furthermore, it represents the basis for further research of the field. Originality/Value: The article deals with the issue of the perception of cybercrime in Slovenia and exposes the critical issues related to the difference in the perception of a similar act of crime in the real life as opposed to the virtual world.
Keywords: computer-related crime, cybercrime, information and communication technologies, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 1443; Downloads: 64
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4.
Specialization of criminal justice authorities in dealing with cybercrime
Milana Pisarić, 2015, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper deals with specialized cybercrime units within the criminal justice system as one of the key elements of proper response to cybercrime. The author emphasizes the need for the establishment and/or improvement of such an organization with specific powers within law enforcement and prosecution authorities as well as within courts, in order to tackle problematic issues raised by computer-related crimes, especially the ones concerning investigation and prosecution of offences committed against and/or by means of computer data and systems, and carrying out computer forensics with respect to electronic evidence in general. Design/Methods/Approach: The author analyses the relevant international legal framework and various national legislation chosen as examples of good practice in order to present the justification and purpose of specialization, types of specialized law enforcement units, their organization, functions, strategic and tactical responsibilities. Findings: Investigation and prosecution of cybercrime and forensic analysis of electronic evidence require specific skills within criminal justice authorities. Therefore, it is advisable to set up or consolidate police-type and prosecution-type cybercrime units with strategic and operational responsibilities and computer forensic capabilities within cybercrime units or as separate structures. As for judiciary, dealing with computer-related crimes requires particular knowledge and skills, and where it is compatible with the legal system of the respective country, the creation of specialized courts may be considered. In addition to the existing legal mechanisms for dealing with transnational crime, the creation of an international court or tribunal that would have jurisdiction over individuals who committed the most serious cybercrimes of global concern may also be a good solution in order to prevent serious cyber attacks from going unpunished. Research Limitations / Implications: The results presented in this paper are to be seen as de lege ferenda proposals for the improvement of the existing legislation related to organization and powers of authority vested in combating cybercrime. Originality/Value: Despite the existence of a significant number of essays dealing with cybercrime, not many of them are concerned with tactical and procedural issues of investigation and prosecution of this specific kind of crimes. The results presented in this paper are de lege ferenda proposals for the improvement of the existing legislation related to organization and powers of authority vested in combating cybercrime. Accordingly, the value of this paper may be recognized in the analysis of legal solutions regarding law enforcement and prosecution response to computer-related crime, with the emphasis on specialization of authorities involved.
Keywords: cybercrime, investigation, prosecution, court, specialization
Published in DKUM: 17.04.2020; Views: 1686; Downloads: 52
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5.
Specialization of criminal justice in dealing with organized crime and juvenile delinquency in the Republic of Serbia
Tatjana Bugarski, 2015, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper deals with specialized cybercrime units within the criminal justice system as one of the key elements of proper response to cybercrime. The author emphasizes the need for the establishment and/or improvement of such an organization with specific powers within law enforcement and prosecution authorities as well as within courts, in order to tackle problematic issues raised by computer-related crimes, especially the ones concerning investigation and prosecution of offences committed against and/or by means of computer data and systems, and carrying out computer forensics with respect to electronic evidence in general. Design/Methods/Approach: The author analyses the relevant international legal framework and various national legislation chosen as examples of good practice in order to present the justification and purpose of specialization, types of specialized law enforcement units, their organization, functions, strategic and tactical responsibilities. Findings: Investigation and prosecution of cybercrime and forensic analysis of electronic evidence require specific skills within criminal justice authorities. Therefore, it is advisable to set up or consolidate police-type and prosecution-type cybercrime units with strategic and operational responsibilities and computer forensic capabilities within cybercrime units or as separate structures. As for judiciary, dealing with computer-related crimes requires particular knowledge and skills, and where it is compatible with the legal system of the respective country, the creation of specialized courts may be considered. In addition to the existing legal mechanisms for dealing with transnational crime, the creation of an international court or tribunal that would have jurisdiction over individuals who committed the most serious cybercrimes of global concern may also be a good solution in order to prevent serious cyber attacks from going unpunished. Research Limitations / Implications: The results presented in this paper are to be seen as de lege ferenda proposals for the improvement of the existing legislation related to organization and powers of authority vested in combating cybercrime. Originality/Value: Despite the existence of a significant number of essays dealing with cybercrime, not many of them are concerned with tactical and procedural issues of investigation and prosecution of this specific kind of crimes. The results presented in this paper are de lege ferenda proposals for the improvement of the existing legislation related to organization and powers of authority vested in combating cybercrime. Accordingly, the value of this paper may be recognized in the analysis of legal solutions regarding law enforcement and prosecution response to computer-related crime, with the emphasis on specialization of authorities involved.
Keywords: cybercrime, investigation, prosecution, court, specialization
Published in DKUM: 16.04.2020; Views: 809; Downloads: 48
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6.
To fear or not to fear on cybercrime
Igor Bernik, Bojan Dobovšek, Blaž Markelj, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: To understand cybercrime and its various forms, one must be familiar with criminality in general. How individuals perceive crime, and how much they fear it is further influenced by news media (Crawford, 2007). Van Duyne (2009), who monitored criminality, wrote about changes which started to be noticed twenty years ago and have shaped a new Europe, a territory without inner borders, and so with more mobility and opportunities for the Europeans. But these novelties and changes in the way we work have also caused certain new problems. It can be said that perpetrators of crimes, who are no longer hindered by state borders, now know no geographical limitations. Vander Baken and Van Daele (2009), for example, have researched mobility in connection to transnational criminality. Von Lampe (2007) has established that perpetrators no longer act individually, but frequently work in cooperation with one another. Crime and mobility are being “greased” by money, and have become a part of everyday life (Van Duyne, 2009). An individual’s perception and understanding of criminality is also biased on certain cultural myths in regard to crime (Meško and Eman, 2009).
Keywords: cybercrime, perception, fear, threats, opinion
Published in DKUM: 06.07.2017; Views: 1627; Downloads: 395
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7.
Social-economic aspects of cybercrime
Aleksandar Ilievski, Igor Bernik, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to highlight the main issues of developing countries regarding cybercrime and examine the possible link between weak economic development and escalating levels of cybercrime. The findings were established on the basis of literature review, comparative studies and the synthesis of findings. The existing sociological theories of crime are not limited to traditional crime and may be used for the interpretation of its cyber version. By analysing individual sociological theories and the results of empirical research, we found that social-economic factors, such as GDP per capita, unemployment and education, are closely related to the incidence of cybercrime in different countries. This enables us to conclude that the relatively poor economic development is one of the reasons contributing to a higher incidence of cybercrime in Eastern European countries. By taking into account factors of different nature, one could increase the understanding of cybercrime and the possibility of adopting and implementing reliable preventive measures. However, this paper strives not only to understand the factors related to cybercrime, but also to raise awareness, stimulate a proactive approach and develop preventive actions in the fight against cybercrime.
Keywords: social-economic aspects, cybercrime, economic development
Published in DKUM: 06.07.2017; Views: 1471; Downloads: 410
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