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Sustainable design of circular reinforced concrete column sections via multi-objective optimization
Primož Jelušič, Tomaž Žula, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: An optimization model for reinforced concrete circular columns based on the Eurocodes is presented. With the developed optimization model, which takes into account the exact distribution of the steel reinforcement, which is not the case when designing with conventional column design charts, an optimal design for the reinforced concrete cross section is determined. The optimization model uses discrete variables, which makes the results more suitable for actual construction practice and fully exploits the structural capacity of the structure. A parametric study of the applied axial load and bending moment was performed for material cost and CO2 emissions. The results based on a single objective function show that the optimal design of the reinforced concrete column cross section obtained for the material cost objective function contains a larger cross-sectional area of concrete and a smaller area of steel compared with the optimization results when CO2 emissions are determined as the objective function. However, the optimal solution in the case where the material cost was assigned as the objective function has much more reserve in axial load capacity than in the optimal design where CO2 was chosen as the objective function. In addition, the multi-objective optimization was performed to find a set of solutions that provide the best trade-offs between the material cost and CO2 emission objectives.
Keywords: reinforced concrete columns, circular cross section, costs, CO2 emissions, multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithm
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 171; Downloads: 198
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Calculation model of the costs of transition to renewable energy sources on the example of the Spanish energy system : magistrsko delo
Luka Gams, 2024, master's thesis

Abstract: This master’s thesis focuses on the efficient integration of renewable energy sources into power systems through the application of an optimized economic dispatch model. The goal is to balance the beneficial aspects of renewable energy with the total costs of power system performance, using advanced management and planning tools. The study incorporates a detailed economic dispatch model and an investment model, considering both the operational and investment costs. The primary objectives include developing a cost-effective strategy to meet the power demand and determining optimal generator capacities. The project aligns with Sustainable Development Goals 7 and 13, advocating for affordable, clean energy and climate action, respectively. The methodology involves a comprehensive review of the relevant literature, model development, real-world data collection, testing, and analysis of outcomes. The potential results can inform future energy planning and policy, supporting a transition to a more sustainable, low-carbon energy future.
Keywords: economic dispatch model, investment model, marginal costs, Gurobi optimizer
Published in DKUM: 06.02.2024; Views: 145; Downloads: 13
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Impact of transport trends on sustainability in the Western Balkans : a future-oriented business sector perspective
Tomislav Letnik, Katja Hanžič, Matej Mencinger, Drago Sever, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Abstract This study examines the impact of emerging transport trends on the Western Balkans and their potential to improve the sustainability and efficiency of the transport sector in the region. In the context of global efforts to reduce environmental impacts and improve transport safety, the study aims to better understand the perspective of the business sector in order to align strategic planning for the introduction of new transport technologies and practices with the expectations of the business sector. Using a questionnaire-based survey on the Mentimeter platform, the study gathers insights from 49 transport and logistics experts. The analysis uses violin plots and heat maps to visualise the expected impact of the identified trends. The results show a consensus among the experts that the emerging trends are likely to lead to a reduction in accidents, congestion, and emissions, while at the same time increasing operating costs and investment in infrastructure. In particular, trends such as alternative fuels, electrification, and smart city initiatives are highlighted as important drivers for reducing emissions. The study concludes that while these trends are likely to lead to the achievement of environmental and safety goals, they also lead to economic challenges as operating costs increase and significant infrastructure investment is required. The study emphasises the need for strategic investment, policy adjustments, and capacity building to lead the Western Balkans towards a sustainable transport future.
Keywords: transport trends, congestion, accidents, infrastructure investment, operational costs, policy adaptation
Published in DKUM: 31.01.2024; Views: 210; Downloads: 11
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Medicine between ethics and scientific progress : how much ethics needs medicine, how much ethics can it afford?
Joseph Straus, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The progress of medicine is heavily dependent on the progress of science and technology, which in turn depend on costly and risky investment in research and development. In this contribution, based on some concrete examples, new scientific achievements are presented as basis of modern medicine and source of ethical concerns. Addressed are also the role of scientists in coping with safety in ethical concerns as regards hazards of new technologies, costs of R&D investment in drug development and the role of patents in this context. In some detail the legal situation existing at an international and European level as regards exclusions from patentability based on reasons of ethics and morals is presented. A critical appraisal of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union as regards patentability of embryonic stem cells is offered.
Keywords: ethics, scientific progress, costs of R&D, role of patents, CJEU case law
Published in DKUM: 08.10.2018; Views: 866; Downloads: 59
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Material and energy balance in the planning of production costs
Manuela Ingaldi, Dorota Klimecka-Tatar, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: material, energy, manufacturing system model, production costs, planning
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2018; Views: 1487; Downloads: 92
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Material flow cost accounting
Manuela Ingaldi, Dorota Klimecka-Tatar, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: material costs, material efficiency, material flow, material flow cost accounting, MFCA
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2018; Views: 2490; Downloads: 84
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Thinking in costs and revenues – calculating prices and controlling costs
Edeltraud Günther, Daria Meyr, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: In contrast to the investment calculation, that has a project-related, cross-period view the cost accounting refers to individual time slices (meaning usually month, quarter or year ) and is more position oriented, respectively division oriented.
Keywords: costs, revenues, calculation, controlling, ecology
Published in DKUM: 11.05.2018; Views: 1035; Downloads: 91
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Transport cost function : case of Slovenian regional rail lines
Marjan Sternad, 2016, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: transport costs, railway transport, rail lines, railway market, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 09.05.2018; Views: 1559; Downloads: 157
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Use of ergonomic principles in manual order picking systems
Nina Labus, Brigita Gajšek, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Successful companies are continually striving to streamline costs and optimize processes, enabling them to grow progress, develop and ensure competitiveness on the market. A large part of the costs arises in warehouses, where up to 55% of total costs are generated by order- picking, which makes it important and interesting in terms of research. The paper explores "picker to part" order- picking concept, which enables flexible work and is the optimal choice for most companies. The concept is associated with a high level of work- related injuries and work -related illnesses. Work requires physical efforts resulting from handling heavy goods, performing repetitive movements and using manipulative means. Hum an as the main actor of the concept affects the costs caused by picking and the quality of work done, which depends on technological support, physically and psychologically capable and motivated people. Due to the high costs of service, the focus on time planning and productivity increases. Contrary, the lack of attention is paid to the working conditions and the health status of the pickers. To overcome this gab, a review of scientific and professional literature on ergonomic principles in picking concept "picker to part" was carried out, followed by a quantitative survey of ergonomic properties in warehousing activities. Results revealed that more than 60% of the surveyed order-pickers associate problems with health with the characteristics of work, about 24% of them associate health problems with the use of a particular means of transport, and all agree that provided measures to reduce physical effort and greater support of technologies influence on increased speed of work and better health status of order-pickers.
Keywords: injuries, picker-to-part, ergonomics, picking, productivity, costs
Published in DKUM: 25.04.2018; Views: 1403; Downloads: 452
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The costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia using different liner shipping services
Vladislav Rajkovič, Nenad Đ. Zrnić, Đorđe Stakić, Borut Mahnič, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Liner shipping is the most efficient mode of transport for goods. International liner shipping is a sophisticated network of regularly scheduled services that transports goods from anywhere in the world to anywhere in the world at low cost and with greater energy efficiency than any other form of international transportation. Liner shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. Today, the liner shipping industry transports goods representing approximately one-third of the total value of global trade. Ocean shipping contributes significantly to international stability and security. Considering the large and constant struggle in the market in terms of competitive pricing of products, a very important and indispensable role represents the container transport with a clear task to define the final price of the product. This paper analyzes the costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia, using different liner shipping services, observing the six world’s largest container operators (Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Company, CMA CGM, Evergreen Line, China Ocean Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd) and inland (truck-rail-river) transport corridors. These corridors include distance between selected Mediterranean ports (Koper, Rijeka, Bar, Thessaloniki, Constanta) and Serbia. As a result, in this paper is considered a mathematical model that provides a comparative analysis of transportation costs on the different routes. It is observed already existing transport routes and it is also given hypothetical review to the development of new transport routes. The main goal of this research is to provide an optimal route with lowest transportation cost during container transport. Selection of the best route in the intermodal network is a very difficult and complex task. The costs in all modes of transport and the quality of their services are not constant parameters and changes depending on a number of conditions and characteristics. The analysis of this model within combined maritime and land-based networks would prove helpful for the study of logistics chains, the hinterland-foreland continuum, intermodal transport systems, and market competitiveness.
Keywords: costs, container transport, liner shipping, mathematical model
Published in DKUM: 17.11.2017; Views: 1881; Downloads: 410
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