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1.
Computational approach to contact fatigue damage initiation analysis of gear teeth flanks
Matjaž Šraml, Jože Flašker, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper describes a general computational model for the simulation of contact fatigue-damage initiation in the contact area of meshing gears. The model considers the continuum mechanics approach, where the use of homogenous and elastic material is assumed. The stress field in the contact area and the relationship between the cyclic contact loading conditions and observed contact points on the tooth flank are simulated with moving Hertzian contact pressure in the framework of the finite element method analysis. An equivalentmodel of Hertzian contact between two cylinders is used for evaluating contact conditions at the major point of contact of meshing gears. For the purpose of fatigue-damage analysis, the model, which is used for prediction of the number of loading cycles required for initial fatigue damageto appear, is based on the Coffin-Manson relationship between deformations and loading cycles. On the basis of computational results, and with consideration of some particular geometrical and material parameters, theinitiation life of contacting spur gears in regard to contact fatigue damage can be estimated.
Keywords: machine elements, fracture mechanics, gears, contact fatigue, crack initiation, numerical modelling, teeth flanks
Published: 30.05.2012; Views: 1720; Downloads: 64
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2.
Pitting formation due to surface and subsurface initiated fatigue crack growth in contacting mechanical elements
Gorazd Fajdiga, Srečko Glodež, Janez Kramar, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: A computational model for simulation of surface and subsurface initiated fatigue crack growth due to contact loading is presented. The model is based on fracture mechanics theory where the required materials properties are obtained from common fatigue tests. For computational simulations an equivalent model of two contacting cylinders is used instead of simulating theactual contact of mechanical elements. The discretised model with the initial crack on or under the surface is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the EHD-lubrication conditions, and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model considers also the moving contact of mechanical elements and for the surface initiated crack also the fluid trapped in the crack. The virtual crack extension method, implemented in the finite element method is then used for simulating the fatigue crack growth from the initial crack up to the formationof the surface pit. The numerical results correspond well with available experimental data. The described model can be used for simulation ofpitting phenomenon of contacting mechanical elements like gears, bearings, wheels, etc.
Keywords: fracture mechnaics, machine elements, gears, contact fatigue, pitting, subsurface crack initiation, computational analysis
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1405; Downloads: 79
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3.
The influence of different parameters on surface pitting of contacting mechanical elements
Gorazd Fajdiga, Jože Flašker, Srečko Glodež, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper describes a general computational model for simulation of surface pitting of mechanical elements subjected to contact loading conditions. In the model it is assumed that the initial crack of length 0.015 mm is initiated at the contacting surfaces due to previously thermal, mechanical treatment of the material or running in process. The discretised model with the initial crack is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the EHD lubrication conditions and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model accounts also for the influence of fluid trapped in the crack on crack prppagation. The virtual crack extension VCE method within FEM analysis is then used for 2 dimensional simulation of fatigue crack propagation from the initial crack up to the formation of the surface pit. The pit shapes and relationships between the stress intensity factor and crack length are determined for various combinations of contacting surface curvatures and loadings. The comparison of computational and available experimental results shows that the proposed model reliably simulates the surface fatigue crack growth under contact loading and can be used for computational predictions of surface pitting for various contacting mechanical elements.
Keywords: machine elements, gears, contact problems, pitting, fatigue crack growth, simulation, model
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1235; Downloads: 82
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4.
Critical plane modelling of fatigue initiation under rolling and sliding contact
Matjaž Šraml, Jože Flašker, Iztok Potrč, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: Contact fatigue is a phenomenon of important practical significance for engineering applications involving localized contacts, such as gears, rail wheel system and rolling bearings. The service lifetime of such components is related to damage, which results from the contact fatigue. The process in the material structure that causes this kind of failure is quite complicated. The aim of the present paper is to describe a contact fatigue initiation criterion, based on the critical plane approach for the general contact problem. On the basis of contact stress analysis with modified Hertzian boundary conditions, the loading cycle of characteristic material points in the contact area is determined. The Dang Van damage initiation criterion is based on the critical plane approach, which combines the largest allowable shearing and hydrostatic stresses (tensile and compressive), with an assumed elastic shakedown behaviour and it is used in this work. The material point of initial fatigue damage is then determined at the transition of the loading cycle stresses over the critical plane. The model assumed a homogeneous and elastic material model, without any imperfections or residual stresses, and elastic shakedown is considered. A proper determination of loading cycles and their characteristic values is of significance for contact fatigue initiation analysis. Finally, determination of the most critical material point on or under the contact surface and related number of loading cycles required for fatigue damage initiation is calculated with the strain-life (▫$epsilon$▫-N) method.
Keywords: machine elements, contact fatigue, crack initiation, strain life method, critical plane approach, numerical modeling
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1303; Downloads: 82
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5.
Numerical procedure for predicting the rolling contact fatigue crack initiation
Matjaž Šraml, Jože Flašker, Iztok Potrč, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: A computational numerical model for contact fatigue damage analysis of mechanical elements is presented in this paper. The computational approach is based on continuum mechanics, where a homogenous and elastic material model isassumed in the framework of the finite element method analysis. Cyclic contact loading conditions are simulated with moving Hertzian contact pressure. The time-depending loading cycles are defined for each observed material point on and under the contact area. Furthermore, the influence of friction upon rolling-sliding contact loading cycles is analysed in detail, using Coulombćs friction law. The model for prediction of the number of loading cycles, required for initial fatigue damages to appear, is based on Coffin-Manson relations between deformations and loading cycles, and includes characteristic material fatigue parameters. As a general example, the model isused to analyse a fundamental contact problem of a cylinder and flat surface, which is usually a substitutional model for analysing real mechanicalproblems. However, the results concerning the identification of critical material points and the number of loading cycles, required for initial fatigue damages to appear at those points, are the main purpose of thepresented study.
Keywords: machine elements, gears, contact problems, contact fatigue, crack initiation, numerical modelling
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1200; Downloads: 51
URL Link to full text

6.
Numerical modelling of micro-pitting of gear teeth flanks
Gorazd Fajdiga, Jože Flašker, Srečko Glodež, Trevor K. Hellen, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: A two-dimensional computational model for simulation of contact fatigue of gear teeth flanks is presented. In the model, it is assumed that the initial crack of length 0.015 mm is initiated at the surface due to previous mechanical or heat treatment of the material as well as a consequence of the running in process. The discretized model with the initial crack is then subjected to normal contact pressure, which takes into account the elasto-hydro-dynamic (EHD) lubrication conditions, and tangential loading due to friction between contacting surfaces. The model also considers the moving contact of gear flanks, fluid trapped in the crack and residual stresses due to heat treatment of the material on crack propagation. The virtual crack extension (VCE) method, implemented in the finite element method, is then usedfor simulating the fatigue crack growth from the initial crack up to the formation of the surface pit. The computational results show that the initial surface crack of length 15 m and the considered boundary conditions lead to the appearance of very small surface pits, which can be termed as micro-pitting on gear teeth flanks. The numerical results correspond well withavailable experimental data.
Keywords: machine elements, gearing, fracture mechanics, numerical analysis, micro pitting, pitting simulation, matematical model, fatigue, contact mechanics, crack propagation
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1665; Downloads: 0

7.
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