Challenges posed by novel vaccines in a hyperlinked society both to doctors and the health of their patientsAlojz Ihan
, 2018, review article
Abstract: Medicine in the developed world is becoming progressively more commercialized since patients (or, more accurately, medical consumers) are increasingly becoming the driving force of what we call medical progress. The doctors are primarily obliged to treat and help patients, but will always have also (commercial) temptation before him: to facilitate the consumer's desires and, with a warm heart, shoot to the far borders of medical knowledge and technology. A good example illustrating dilemma of beneficial vs commercial medicine are ethical challenges of some new vaccines developed recently. Since their earliest introduction in the late 18th century, vaccines have undoubtedly saved the lives of millions, while also fundamentally changing the way modern medicine is practiced. Many diseases that were once widespread are now eradicated, yet vaccine development faces ongoing challenges, including some important ethical considerations. Today there are over 300 vaccines in development and included in clinical trials. Among them, anti-addiction vaccines (Cocaine, Nicotine, Fentanyl, Heroin, Oxycodone) received a burst of media attention, because these vaccines could help people in recovery from addiction; however, many ethical and legal questions may arise before clinical use.
Keywords: conflicts of interest, physicians, commercialization, public health
Published: 09.10.2018; Views: 779; Downloads: 64
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The impact of culture on organizational behaviorSonja Treven
, Matjaž Mulej
, Monty L. Lynn
, 2008, short scientific article
Abstract: In the paper the authors first present two approaches to the scrutiny of the culture - Hofstede's dimensions of cultural values and Hall's approach to high- and low-context cultures. In the second part they devote their attention to the interaction of culture and organizational behaviour. They also describe how culture affects the ethics and motivation of employees in companies, the way of communicating, success of conflict solving and organizational change. A special issue is the ethics of interdependence.
Keywords: culture, business ethics, ethics, motivation, organization, problem solving, conflicts
Published: 04.07.2017; Views: 620; Downloads: 143
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Impact of disturbing factors on cooperation in logistics outsourcing performanceAndreja Križman
, Anton Ogorelc
, 2010, review article
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the research results of a study conducted in the Slovene logistics market of conflicts and opportunism as disturbing factors while examining their impact on cooperation in logistics outsourcing performance. Relationship variables are proposed that directly or indirectly affect logistics performance and conceptualize the hypotheses based on causal linkages for the constructs. On the basis of extant literature and new argumentations that are derived from in-depth interviews of logistics experts, including providers and customers, the measurement and structural models are empirically analyzed. Existing measurement scales for the constructs are slightly modified for this analysis. Purification testing and measurement for validity and reliability are performed. Multivariate statistical methods are utilized and hypotheses are tested. The results show that conflicts have a significantly negative impact on cooperation between customers and logistics service providers (LSPs), while opportunism does not play an important role in these relationships. The observed antecedents of logistics outsourcing performance in the model account for 58.4% of the variance of the goal achievement and 36.5% of the variance of the exceeded goal.
Keywords: logistics outsourcing performance, logistics customer–provider relationships, conflicts and cooperation in logistics out- sourcing, PLS path modelling
Published: 02.06.2017; Views: 617; Downloads: 110
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INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS UNDER PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAWAna Povh
, 2014, undergraduate thesis
Abstract: Preceeding work is analysing a highly problematic field of public international law, where in one actual state several principles of international law, humanitarian legal rules, international political interests and humanitarian conscience are coliding intensely. This is the case of civil wars where human rights of civilians are violated on a massive scale. Since they do not include a foreign element by the nature, possibilities of international protection are very lessened. Apathy of the international community and the failure to enforce international law are both permitting for human suffering of unimaginable extensions taking place in immediate vicinity of the 'developed world'.
Rules of conduct in the international community are being set by the international public law, which serves in interests of States. Until inclusion of international organisations with supranational authorities legal order was therefore designed only by their will. Later development has made it possible that rules were created by global consensus which suggested creation of norms with humanitarian nature. This leads to conclusion that there is no centralised legislator present in the international sphere and that obligatory norms are hard to find. Nevertheless humanitarian norms with cogent nature are still present, their uncovery is linked to the source from which they derive. Determining the source therefore leads to determination of those humanitarian rules that subjects need to respect in all circumstances. Such enforcement inside State's territorial integrity sadly still represents a meeting point for two contradictoring but hierarchally ecvivalent principles of international order, resulting in unsanctionising of mass breaches of international humanitarian rules. These two principles are the principle of State's sovereignty and the principle for respect of human rights and they result in such international policy which places the primal responsibilty for ensuring the respect of human rights in the hands of a State. Any external intervention is almost impossible.Consequences of such international understanding are vividly seen in civil or internal conflicts where protection of civilian population is in sole discretion of the warring parties.
Still, universally applicable international law which can not be violated even in the times of war exists. Determination of humanitarian rules which have to be performed on the field, is dependant on the qualification of the sources from which they derive. International treaties, by their nature being obligatory for their signatories, comprise the first group of sources. Second group is producing rules which are waiting for bestowment of this quality and their possible cogency is dependant on State practice and on the so-called common legal sense of obligation. Most important of them is international customary law which produces rules, essential for filling those legal holes, left behind by international treaties. Moreover they are obligatory for every Party involved, even though they have not expressed their commitment. Together with universal human rights, provided by international human rights law, they represent a cornerstone of international legal order for the field of internal armed conflicts. Their enforcement is in the most benefit of civilian population.
Keywords: International public law, international humanitarian law, human rights law, internal armed conflicts, non-international armed conflicts, fundamental guarantees, war, Geneva Conventions, United Nations, civilian population, peremptory norms, customary law.
Published: 09.06.2014; Views: 1237; Downloads: 75
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INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSNuša Basle
, 2013, undergraduate thesis
Abstract: In this diploma seminar I investigate world cultures and present their features, similarities and differences. Based thereon, I attempt to find out the possible ways to conduct business in different cultures. My aim was also to prove if all the literature information can be used in real life experience. I interviewed people who work in international firms that operate aboard, specifically in Austria, Brazil and Russia for my empirical part. On the basis of their information I could conclude that theory applies to practice and can serve as a useful guideline for international companies who want to conduct international business.
Keywords: Culture, cultural differences, international business, communication, negotiation, resolving conflicts.
Published: 24.10.2013; Views: 1166; Downloads: 135
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Possible consequences of student's relationship to parents and to schoolMajda Pšunder
, Antonija Milivojević Krajnčič
, 2009, original scientific article
Abstract: This research work is dealing with the different behaviour of the young, adolescent people and their perception of the relationship with their parents and their attitude towards school in the time of their early adolescence. Research work is answering the questions connected with the relationship with the parents, attitude towards school as well as the behaviour deviation of adolescents (youth). The research is based on claim that teenager's relationship with his mother and father have an important influence on his/her behavior, especially on the conflicts with the environment. Opačič (1995) argues that the relationship between parents, the environment and the teenagers is not so important. Therefore, we were interested in teenagers' attitudes towards their relationships that they have with their parents. The following dimensions of a relationship were emphasized (observed in greater detail): control, punishment, intimacy and carelessness on the side of the parents. Through those dimensions we could show the teenager's comprehension of the relationship they have with their parents and/or mother and father's comprehension of the relationship in the early phase of adolescence. He stresses (emphasizes) their attitude (perception of) towards such relationships. Some quantity research procedures are used in this research work. There are four different non-standardized questionnaires: The frequency of the behaviour deviation, A relationship with a mother, A relationship with a father, A conflict situations with parents connected with different conversation themes, An attitude towards school. The study relies on descriptive and causal-non-experimental methods of empirical pedagogical research. The research includes an accidental sample of the pupils attending 7th and 9th class of the Primary school in Maribor in the school year 2007 (n=300).Istraživanje se bavi odstupanjem u ponašanju maloljetnih osoba i njihovom percepcijom odnosa sa roditeljima, te odnosa prema školi u periodu rane adolescencije. Temelji se na uvjerenju da odnosi maloljetnika s majkom i ocem bitno utječu na njihovo socijalno ponašanje, a posebno na konflikte sa okolinom. Opačič (1995) je ustanovio da nije važno, kako se roditelji i okolina ponašaju u odnosu prema njima, nego kako maloljetnici vide (percipiraju) te odnose. Zato nas je prije svega zanimalo, kako maloljetnici vide odnose s roditeljima naglašavajući slijedeće dimenzije odnosa: kontrola, kažnjavanje, intimnost (blizina), zanemarivanje od strane roditelja. Pomoću tih dimenzija željeli smo osvijetliti maloljetnikovo doživljavanje odnosno viđenje odnosa sa strane majke i oca u periodu rane adolescencije. U istraživanju su korišteni kvantitativni istraživački postupci, upotrijebljeni instrument mjerenja obuhvaćaju četiri nestandardizirana anketna upitnika: Čestoća odstupanja u ponašanju, Odnos s majkom, Odnos s ocem, Konflikt s roditeljima u vezi različitih temam razgovora, Odnos prema školi. Koristili smo deskriptivnu i kauzalnu-neeksperimentalnu metodu empirijskog pedagoškog istraživanja. Istraživanje uključuje slučajni uzorak učenika, koji su školske godine 2007. pohađali 7. i 9. razred osnovne škole općine Maribor (n=300).
Keywords: early adolescence, behaviour, attitude towards school, conflicts
Published: 07.06.2012; Views: 1230; Downloads: 22
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Project management : a managerial approachJack R. Meredith
, Samuel J. Mantel
, higher education textbook
Keywords: projects, project management, management, manager, project organization, planning, project planning, conflicts, bargaining, negotiation, budgeting, costs, information systems, information resources, allocation, monitoring, control, auditing, statistics, probability, case study, textbooks
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1705; Downloads: 86
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