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Formal boundaries of Slovenian law
Bojan Tičar, 2018, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The article is primarily intended for foreign exchange students (e.g. students participating in the Erasmus+ programme) at the Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security of the University of Maribor studying how Slovenia regulates the field of criminal justice and security. The article deals with the formal boundaries of Slovenian law mostly from the viewpoint of the legal order in force in the country. Readers will learn how the Slovenian legal order functions, which general acts are adopted by the state and which by local bodies, the rules governing their application, and the relationships between them, as well as the way EU law is applied in Slovenia. Design/Methods/Approach: The article is a review article based on a descriptive analytical method and linguistic interpretation of the relevant regulations. The author also applies a historical method – primarily by presenting the Roman law perspective on legal concepts – as well as teleological and legal philosophical methods in defining legal concepts. Findings: The article examines fundamental legal institutions. The author establishes the attitude of writers in the fields of the theory of law and critical jurisprudence regarding the definitions of key legal concepts and phenomena. The article concludes with Kant’s remark that lawyers are still seeking a definition of their concept of law (Perenič, 2007). Research Limitations / Implications: The article is short. The legal definitions are occasionally simplified which, however, is not to the reader’s disadvantage. In some instances, the author attempts to simplify complicated legal concepts with the objective of making the study of other subjects in the field of criminal justice and security easier for the reader and to provide a clear foundation for a basic understanding of the categorical apparatus in law. Practical Implications: The article has practical value for foreign, English-speaking students who, generally, are not students of law, but need a basic understanding of the fundamental legal concepts useful in most social science research. The definitions of the concepts are appropriate and contemporary and thereby contribute to better understanding of the field. Originality/Value: The article is a review article and therefore its originality is limited. The author namely does not establish any new scientific findings, but summarises and defines already known concepts. The article’s original value is that the author presents fundamental legal concepts and definitions in a readable and easy-to-digest manner that the reader can easily remember. The definitions of the legal concepts addressed in the article are precise and useful and will serve the reader in further study or research.
Keywords: law, legal order, morality, classification of law, sources of law, legal norm, statute, lex specialis
Published in DKUM: 20.04.2020; Views: 508; Downloads: 29
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Systems approach to standardisation, classification and modelling of managed events for tourism
Tadeja Jere Lazanski, Aleksandra Golob, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and Purpose: The standardisation and classification of managed events provide a legislative basis to distinguish events managed for tourism in their characteristics and quality. The systems approach to standardisation and classification of managed events is a unique, holistic view of event management quality and event organization in tourism. It enables a clear overview of a researched topic and provides adequate support to design and decision-making. In this paper, we explain the meaning of standardisation and classification for Slovenian legislation related to event management. We present the importance of a systems approach methodology for event categorization and classification as it relates to the quality of event management organization, the quality of staff, the quality of the event program and the quality of event services. Objectives: Provide an overview of events in tourism, related definitions and information gathered from scientific authors, which serves as current systems approach principles with which we want to achieve the desired results, positive changes in legislation; in our case-in the field of managed event quality for tourism through standardisation and classification of events on the national level in Slovenia. Method: A descriptive method and systems approach methods are fundamental methodological principles in our analysis. In the context of a systems approach, we used qualitative modelling and constructed causal loop models (CLD) of the legislative system of events and investments in the events. We also used context-dependent modelling (SD model) in a frame of systems dynamics. Results: We present the most appropriate solution to eliminate our problem or question about how to achieve high quality and unique events within event tourism and with event management, thereby creating added value to an event legislative system. We explain suggestions for achieving triple-bottom elements through well-designed quality standards and classification of events, which leads to an optimal categorization of events. Conclusion: From a systems point of view, event tourism processes, including event management, are systems consisting of people and technologies with the purpose of designing, producing, trading and deploying the idea of an event. It is necessary to transform the current Slovenian legislative system of events and prepare a document which standardizes and classifies events based on systems approach methodology.
Keywords: systems approach, standarization, classification, tourism, managed events, modelling
Published in DKUM: 22.01.2018; Views: 748; Downloads: 315
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Macroeconomic determinants of the non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities of Croatian banks
Manuel Benazić, Dajana Radin, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and Purpose: The non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities are often considered key factors that lead to banking crises. Economic and financial crises increase the level of the non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities which can cause significant losses for banks. Effective management and regulatory/ supervisory institutions such central banks should be able to recognize and quantify these effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to empirically determine the existence and the quantitative impact of main Croatian macroeconomic variables on the non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities of Croatian banks in the long and short-run. Methodology: For this purpose the bounds testing (ARDL) approach for cointegration is applied. The ARDL model is performed in two steps. The first step starts with conducting the bounds test for cointegration. In the second step, when cointegration is found, the long-run relationship and the associated error correction model are estimated. Results: The results indicate the existence of stable cointegration relationship between the variables i.e. in the longrun, an increase in real GDP reduces the level of the non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities of Croatian banks wherein an increase in prices, unemployment, interest rate and the depreciation of the Croatian kuna exchange rate increases their level. On the other hand, in the short-run the results are rather mixed. Conclusion: To avoid crises, effective bank management and regulatory/supervisory institutions should be able to recognize and quantify these effects. This is a necessary precondition for implementation of an adequate prudential and monetary policy measures for reducing the level of the non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities.
Keywords: non-performing placements and off-balance sheet liabilities, non-performing loans, economic and financial crises, credit risk, classification of placements and off-balance sheet liabilities
Published in DKUM: 04.12.2017; Views: 729; Downloads: 305
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Coopetition effect determinants : competitor's size, geographical scope, market and technological positions
Joanna Cygler, Katarzyna Dębkowska, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Background and Goal: The article is aimed at conducting an empirical analysis of the value and significance of coopetitors’ attributes thanks to which coopetition, which is a combination of cooperation and competition between competitors, generates a substantial corporate profit. Four major competitors’ attributes have been analysed: its size, geographical scope, market and technological position. The research also includes the Porter’s value chain. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The survey has been conducted on a sample of 235 high- tech companies operating in Poland and involved in coopetition. The sample is representative. The data have been collected at interviews with company top executives or owners. The research applies the method of classification trees, which, thanks to diagrams, sequentially divides the examined data space into classes (spaces) of similar properties. The assessment of the effect of coopetition, including its variants, made by the examined company served as a dependent qualitative variable. Four coopetitor’s attributes and their variants were assumed as explanatory variables (predictors) affecting the assessment of cooperation. Results: The results of research indicated the necessity for an accurate competitor’s profile selection. The significance of each of the four attributes may be different depending on the undertaken areas of cooperation with a competitor. The value of all the attributes of competitors is also diverse depending on the area of cooperation. A selected competitor’s profile with regard to the four analysed attributes may become a stimulant to generate benefits in one area, while in another area it may become an inhibitor. Conclusions: So far, the selection of a coopetition partner has been treated universally, without scrutinizing on some specific needs in relation to the area of cooperation. The selection of an appropriate coopetitor’s profile will allow for the cost reduction in search of appropriate candidates for cooperation and in relations management.
Keywords: coopetition, effects, competitor’s attributes, classification trees
Published in DKUM: 29.11.2017; Views: 613; Downloads: 126
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Comprehensible predictive modeling using regularized logistic regression and comorbidity based features
Gregor Štiglic, Petra Povalej Bržan, Nino Fijačko, Fei Wang, Alexandros Kalousis, Boris Delibašić, Zoran Obradović, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Different studies have demonstrated the importance of comorbidities to better understand the origin and evolution of medical complications. This study focuses on improvement of the predictive model interpretability based on simple logical features representing comorbidities. We use group lasso based feature interaction discovery followed by a post-processing step, where simple logic terms are added. In the final step, we reduce the feature set by applying lasso logistic regression to obtain a compact set of non-zero coefficients that represent a more comprehensible predictive model. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was demonstrated on a pediatric hospital discharge dataset that was used to build a readmission risk estimation model. The evaluation of the proposed method demonstrates a reduction of the initial set of features in a regression model by 72%, with a slight improvement in the Area Under the ROC Curve metric from 0.763 (95% CI: 0.755%0.771) to 0.769 (95% CI: 0.761%0.777). Additionally, our results show improvement in comprehensibility of the final predictive model using simple comorbidity based terms for logistic regression.
Keywords: predictive models, logistic regression, readmission classification, comorbidities
Published in DKUM: 19.06.2017; Views: 870; Downloads: 308
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Chemometric characterisation of the quality of ground waters from different wells in Slovenia
Ernest Vončina, Darinka Brodnjak-Vončina, Nataša Sovič, Marjana Novič, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The quality of ground water as a source of drinking water in Slovenia is regularly monitored. One of the monitoring programmes is performed on 5 wells for drinking water supply, 3 industrial wells and 2 ground water monitoring wells. Two hundred and fourteen samples of ground waters were analysed in the time 2003-2004. Samples were gathered from ten different sampling sites and physical chemical measurements were performed. The following 13 physical chemical parameters were regularly controlled: temperature, pH, conductivity, nitrate, AOX (adsorbable organic halogens), metals such as chromium, pesticides (desethyl atrazine, atrazine and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide), highly-volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (trichlorometane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene and 1,1,2-trichloroethene). For handling the results different chemometrics methods were employed, such as basic statistical methods for the determination of mean and median values, standard deviations, minimal and maximal values of measured parameters and their mutual correlation coefficients, cluster analysis (CA), the principal component analysis (PCA), the clustering method based on Kohonen neural network, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The study gives the opportunity to follow the quality of ground waters at different sampling sites within the defined time period. Monitoring of general pollution of ground waters and following measuring can be used to search the pollution source, to plan prevention measures and to protect from pollution, as well.
Keywords: ground waters, water quality, principal component analysis, classification, Kohonen neural networks
Published in DKUM: 21.12.2015; Views: 1575; Downloads: 113
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Characterization of Slovenian wines using multidimensional data analysis from simple enological descriptors
Adriána Bednárová, Roman Kranvogl, Darinka Brodnjak-Vončina, Tjaša Jug, Ernest Beinrohr, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Determination of the product's origin is one of the primary requirements when certifying a wine's authenticity. Significant research has described the possibilities of predicting a wine's origin using efficient methods of wine components' analyses connected with multivariate data analysis. The main goal of this study was to examine the discrimination ability of simple enological descriptors for the classification of Slovenian red and white wine samples according to their varieties and geographical origins. Another task was to investigate the inter-relations available among descriptors such as relative density, content of total acids, non-volatile acids and volatile acids, ash, reducing sugars, sugar-free extract, $SO_2$, ethanol, pH, and an important additional variable - the sensorial quality of the wine, using correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CLU). 739 red and white wine samples were scanned on a Wine Scan FT 120, from wave numbers 926 $cm^{–1}$ to 5012 $cm^{–1}$. The applied methods of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), general discriminant analysis (GDA), and artificial neural networks (ANN), demonstrated their power for authentication purposes.
Keywords: wine authentication, enological descriptors, classification techniques, ANN
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1738; Downloads: 41
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Primerjava napovedne vrednosti rezultatov lestvic RISC (Revised Injury Severity Classification) in TRISS (Trauma and Injury Severity Score) na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih
Drago Brilej, 2014, dissertation

Abstract: IZHODIŠČA: Temeljni pogoj za zagotavljanje kakovosti zdravljenja je spremljanje rezultatov. Za objektivno oceno potrebujemo ustrezne podatke. Glavni namen registrov poškodovanih je pridobivanje podatkov o celotni verigi oskrbe od mesta nesreče do zaključka hospitalizacije. Zaradi razpršenosti poškodovancev po številnih bolnišnicah v Sloveniji je v Projektu razvoja mreže travmatološke dejavnosti predvidena uvedba nacionalnega registra poškodovancev. Za primerjavo rezultatov zdravljenja poškodovancev z mednarodnimi standardi se največ uporablja metodologija TRISS. Razvili so jo z multivariantno analizo skupine poškodovancev (MTOS), ki se pomembno razlikuje od slovenskega vzorca hudo poškodovanih. Zaradi te razlike se je porodil dvom o uporabnosti metodologije TRISS. Z vključitvijo slovenskih poškodovancev v nemški TR DGU pa smo prevzeli metodo RISC za primerjavo rezultatov zdravljenja z drugimi ustanovami. Nova metoda še ni bila ovrednotena na skupini, ki se razlikuje od poškodbenega vzorca v TR DGU. Namen naloge je preveriti uporabnost metode RISC na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih in jo primerjati z metodo TRISS. METODE: Od vstopa v TR DGU v letu 2006 smo v SB Celje prospektivno zajeli podatke o kohortni skupini 376 hudo poškodovanih in jih vnesli v TR DGU. Primerjali smo dejavnike tveganja med poškodovanci v SB Celje in TR DGU ter izračunali vrednosti TRISS in RISC za vsakega poškodovanca. S statistiko M smo primerjali porazdelitev izračunanih verjetnosti preživetja med SB Celje, MTOS in TR DGU. Za ugotavljanje ustreznosti točkovnih lestvic (TRISS, RISC in RISC II) smo uporabili statistične metode diskriminacije (aROC), natančnosti (razlika v preživetju) in kalibracije (statistika H-L). REZULTATI: Povprečna starost poškodovancev je bila 47 let, 83 % je bilo moških, 95 % topih poškodb. Povprečna ISS vrednost je bila 26,4 (90 % ≥ 16). V bolnišnici je umrlo 17,5 % poškodovancev. Standardizirana umrljivost je pokazala za 1,9 % manjšo umrljivost, kot je predvidena s statističnimi modeli. Ugotovili smo pomembno odstopanje v dejavnikih tveganja med poškodovanci v SB Celje in TR DGU, kar lahko razložimo z drugačnimi vključitvenimi merili. Potrdili smo, da je slovenski vzorec hudo poškodovanih drugačen, in da je treba preveriti učinkovitost metode RISC. Primerjali smo preživetje med skupinami in ugotovili slabo ujemanje skupine poškodovancev v SB Celje z MTOS (M = 0,50) ter dobro ujemanje s TR DGU (M = 0,88). V dveh časovnih obdobjih (2006–07 in 2011–12) se porazdelitev v SB Celje ni pomembno spremenila (M = 0,90). Potrdili smo pomembno razliko med skupino MTOS in SB Celje, ki vpliva na uporabnost metode TRISS. Kljub razlikam v dejavnikih tveganja pa smo potrdili dobro ujemanje rezultatov med skupinama SB Celje in TR DGU, kar upravičuje uporabo metode RISC na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih. Najboljšo diskriminacijo sta pokazali lestvici RISC in RISCII (aROC 0,91 in 0,90). Najbolj natančna je bila lestvica RISC (razlika v umrljivosti 1,9 %), ki je prav tako imela najboljšo in skoraj popolno kalibracijo (H-L 0,53). ZAKLJUČKI: Metoda RISC je pokazala boljšo diskriminacijo in kalibracijo, bila je bolj natančna kot metodologija TRISS za slovenski vzorec hudo poškodovanih. Primerjava podatkov v SB Celje v letih 2006-7 z leti 2011-2 je pokazala nekaj razlik. Predvsem je opazno izboljšanje na področju kazalnikov kakovosti oskrbe (krajši predbolnišnični čas, krajši čas na urgentnem oddelku). Toda te razlike niso vplivale na uporabnost metode RISC. Prestala je test sprememb v strukturi in obravnavi poškodovancev skozi čas. Metoda TRISS kljub novim koeficientom ni primerna za uporabo na slovenskem vzorcu hudo poškodovanih. Posodobljena RISC II je dobra metoda, a nič boljša od že uveljavljene RISC.
Keywords: hudo poškodovani, vrednotenje, Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC), register
Published in DKUM: 26.01.2015; Views: 1618; Downloads: 253
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An algorithm for protecting knowledge discovery data
Boštjan Brumen, Izidor Golob, Tatjana Welzer-Družovec, Ivan Rozman, Marjan Družovec, Hannu Jaakkola, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: In the paper, we present an algorithm that can be applied to protect data before a data mining process takes place. The data mining, a part of the knowledge discovery process, is mainly about building models from data. We address the following question: can we protect the data and still allow the data modelling process to take place? We consider the case where the distributions of original data values are preserved while the values themselves change, so that the resulting model is equivalent to the one built with original data. The presented formal approach is especially useful when the knowledge discovery process is outsourced. The application of the algorithm is demonstrated through an example.
Keywords: data protection algorithm, classification algorithm, disclosure control, data mining, knowledge discovery, data security
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 1771; Downloads: 45
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