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1.
Study of crosslinking efficiency of cotton cellulose by different physical-chemical methods and genetic programming
Olivera Šauperl, Miran Brezočnik, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: We have investigated the crosslinking effect of unmercerized and mercerized cotton celluose crosslinked with different BTCA mass fractions in the impregnation bath. Crosslinking efficiency was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy, water retention capacity method, tensiometry and the methylene blue method. On the basis of the experimental data which was obtained with theseparate physical-chemical methods, different prediction models for crosslinking efficiency was developed. Modelling was taken out with the genetic programming method. Research shows good accordance of the experimentaldata with the genetic models.
Keywords: textile fibres, cotton, cellulose, crosslinking, FTIR spectroscopy, methylene blue method, water retention capacity, tensiometry, genetic programming
Published: 30.05.2012; Views: 1297; Downloads: 43
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2.
Evaluation of analytical methods for the determination of free formaldehyde on textile substrate
Bojana Vončina, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, Darinka Brodnjak-Vončina, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Release of formaldehyde from durable press-treated fabrics is a problem for human health and safety because formaldehyde is suspected to be carcinogenic. The accuracy of the standard test method for the free formaldehyde determination, Japan Law 112, depends on the formaldehyde content of the sample. The detection of low formaldehyde contents is particularly important in fields, like children clothing, so the application of high-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated. The results obtained by the standard testmethod, Japan Law 112, where UV/Vis spectrometer was used, were compared with the results obtained by HPLC method in which separation was performed on an RP C18 column with water-methanol as a mobile phase. It was shown that the detection limit and limit of quantification were improved using the HPLC method.
Keywords: analizna kemija, formaldehid, določevanje formaldehida, celulozna vlakna, HPLC, UV/VIS, analytical chemistry, formaldehyde, determination of formaldehyde, cellulose fibres, HPLC, UV/VIS
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1733; Downloads: 66
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3.
Antimicrobial efficiency of functionalized cellulose fibres as potential medical textiles
Tijana Ristić, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Monika Novak, Marjetka Kralj Kunčič, Silva Sonjak, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Simona Strnad, 2011, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Abstract: This chapter presents an overview of methods for cellulose fibres functionalization in order to introduce antimicrobial activity. In view the need for ecologically friendly textiles antimicrobial finishing is introduced, together with some strategies for the functionalization of fibres using biodegradable polysaccharides such as the use of chitosan. Additionally,the methods used for the microbiological testing of these fibres are discussed and the current disadvantages of these methods indicated. Moreover, a new strategy for a reliable methodology regarding the antimicrobial testing of oriented fibre-based polymers such as cellulose is discussed, which could also be useful within several other polymer industrial fields.
Keywords: anitmicrobial agents, medical textiles, cellulose fibres, microbiological test, antimicrobial efficiency
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1455; Downloads: 30
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4.
Analysis of the oxidation of cellulose fibres by titration and XPS
Lidija Fras Zemljič, Leena Sisko Johansson, Peer Stenius, Janne Laine, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Volker Ribitsch, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of selective oxidation on the surface properties of cotton cellulose fibres. Four different methods to evaluate the accessibility, nature and content of ionisable acidic groups (charge) in the fibres were applied: potentiometric and conductometric titrations, polyelectrolyte adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results from this combination of methods show that two processes take place when the oxidation method is applied: elimination of low molecular mass non-cellulosic compounds and formation of new acidic groups in the cellulose chains. Which of these processes is predominating depends on oxidation time, but the first one is initially more important. Polyelectrolyte adsorption and XPS show that the surface concentration of acidic groups is considerably lower than the bulk concentration, i.e. during oxidation the content of carboxyl groups in the surface region decreases, while it increases in amorphous regions. The decrease is due to the dissolution of low molecular weight compounds; the increase is due to the formation of new acidic groups. The use of titration methods in combination with XPS appears to be a very useful tool for identification of the formation and distribution of ionic groups in cotton fibres and their surfaces.
Keywords: textile fibres, cotton fibres, cellulose fibres, oxidation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, acid groups in fibres
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1357; Downloads: 71
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5.
Topochemical modification of cotton fibres with carboxymethyl cellulose
Lidija Fras Zemljič, Peer Stenius, Janne Laine, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: The research reported in this paper demonstrates that the capacity of cotton fibres to adsorb cationic surfactants as well as the rate of the adsorption process can be increased by adsorbing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) onto the fibre surfaces; in addition, the adsorption can be restricted to the fibre surface. CMC was deposited by means of adsorption from an aqueous solution. The adsorption of N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) from an aqueous solution onto the CMC-modified fibres was measured using UVspectrometric determination of the surfactant concentration in the solution. Adsorption onto the cotton fibres was studied in a weakly basic environment (pH 8.5) where cotton fibres are negatively charged and the CPC ion is positively charged. Modification of the fibres by adsorption of CMC introduces new carboxyl groups onto the fibre surfaces, thereby increasing the adsorption capacity of the fibres for CPC. The initial rate of adsorption of CPC increased proportionally with the amountof charge; however, this rate slowed down at high degrees of coverage onfibres with a high charge. The adsorption of cationic surfactant to the anionic surface groups was stoichiometric, with no indication of multilayer oradmicelle formation. It was evident that the acidic group content of the fibres was the primary factor determining cationic surfactant adsorption to these fibres.
Keywords: textile fibres, cotton fibres, modification, carboxymethyl cellulose, acid groups, charge increase, conductiometric titration, phenol-sulphuric acid test, practical applications
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1096; Downloads: 71
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6.
X-ray study of pre-treated regenerated cellulose fibres
Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, Zdenka Peršin, Tatjana Kreže, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Volker Ribitsch, Susanne Neumayer, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: Regenerated cellulose fibres have had an important role to play in the man-made fibre field. The very special characteristics of different types of regenerated cellulose fibres, e.g. mechanical properties, sorption characteristics, and aesthetics were conditioned by the differences in their fine structure due to fibre formation processes. Additionally, the finishing processes could influence the fibre structure. A study was done of the crystalline structures of a solvent-spun cellulose fibre type (Lenzing Lyocell), made according to the NMMO process, and two conventional cellulosic fibre types, made by the viscose process (Lenzing Viscose and Lenzing Modal). The fibres were pre-treated (bleached and slack mercerised) and structural changes were followed by wide angle and small angle x-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS), respectively. The periodical structure, determined by long spacing, was nearly the same in all the different types of fibres. A slight increase was observed after the treatment of viscose and modal fibres, but an unpronounced fall of a long period accompanied the pre-treatment of lyocell fibres. Some changes in crystallinity and crystalline orientation occurred due to the treatment conditions. The structural changes were correlated to the iodinesorption and mechanical properties.
Keywords: regenerated cellulose fibres, fibre structure, fibre properties, x-ray analysis, WAXS, SAXS, cellulose pre-treatment
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1254; Downloads: 51
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7.
Application of spectrophotometric methods in assessing the influence of alkaline treatment on the degree of crosslinking of cotton cellulose with BTCA
Olivera Šauperl, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Bojana Vončina, Majda Sfiligoj-Smole, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: Polycarboxylic acids appear to be the most promising nonformaldehyde crosslinking agents to replace the traditional, mostly formaldehyde-based, compounds. The most effective among these acids is 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA). In this study, a comparison was made of the crosslinking effect on mercerized and on unmercerized as well as with different BTCA mass fractions crosslinked cotton fibres using FT-IR spectroscopy, the methylene blue method and water retention determination. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate how the structural changes of mercerized cotton (transformation of cellulose I into cellulose II) influence the crosslinking of cellulose fibres.
Keywords: textile fibres, cotton fibres, cotton cellulose, mercerization, crosslinking
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1402; Downloads: 71
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8.
Antimicrobial medical textiles based on chitosan nanoparticles for gynaecological treatment
Tijana Ristić, 2014, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The aim of this dissertation was to develop a novel medical tampon for alternative gynaecological treatment using chitosan nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent or as a drug delivery system. For this purpose viscose tampon band was used and functionalized with chitosan and trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles. A comprehensive of interactions between chitosan and cellulose as well as characterization of prepared materials were done. At the beginning, chitosan (CS) and trimethyl chitosan (TMC) solutions, as well as nanoparticles synthesised by ionic gelation were studied. Their characterization was focused on determining the charge and antimicrobial properties against common pathogenic microorganism. The influence of cationic charge on the inhibition of microbial growth was confirmed. Since CS and TMC solutions and nanoparticles dispersions exhibited antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus, a detailed investigation in chitosan’s antimicrobial mode of action was performed using a novel diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (D-NMR). D-NMR allowed the monitoring of intra- and extracellular water exchange from the cells indicating the membrane alteration and leakage of intracellular constituencies. Further, in order to study the adsorption phenomena and molecular interactions between CS/TMC (solution or nanoparticles) and cellulose material, model cellulose surfaces were used, and adsorption was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. CS and TMC were favourably deposited onto cellulose model surface at higher ionic strength, higher pH values, i.e. factors causing lower solubility, where the presence of electrostatic interactions was negligible and non-electrostatic interactions were dominant. The knowledge gained from the model surfaces was extremely helpful in characterization of real systems, i.e. functionalized cellulose fibres and for understanding the obtained results. Immobilization of CS and TMC (in the form of solution and/or nanoparticles) onto cellulose viscose fibres was confirmed with several analytical methods. The attachment of chitosan onto fibres was reversible, as endorsed with desorption studies mimicking the conditions of vaginal usage. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties was performed using two different techniques, both revealing a high inhibition of the tested microorganism. In addition, Lactobacillus susceptibility testing has shown that chitosan-coated fibres do not have any negative influence on the resident microbiota. Assessment of in-vitro cytotoxicity demonstrated that samples do not cause a cytotoxic effect in direct contact. Additionally, model drug was incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles and subsequently attached onto fibres in order to create modern, vaginal drug delivery systems. Antimicrobial medical textiles investigated in the scope of this dissertation show the potential for their exploitation in gynaecological field as preventive or curative treatment without triggering any adverse effects for the user.
Keywords: chitosan, N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan, nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, cellulose model films, regenerated cellulose fibres, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, vaginal infections, drug delivery systems, cytotoxicity
Published: 13.02.2014; Views: 2032; Downloads: 85
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9.
Hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics of different cellulose fibres monitored by tensiometry
Zdenka Peršin, Karin Stana-Kleinschek, Tatjana Kreže, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: Wettability and sorptivity improvements for different textile materials are the major tasks during textile finishing. In order to improve the sorption characteristics of a cellulose fabric, different pre-treatment processes are applied, usually washing, bleaching and mecerisation. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and pretreated (washed and bleached) regenerated cellulose fibres were obtained using tensiometry and compared with the classical method for determining moisture adsorption. Results show that compared to raw fibres, viscose fibres have the highest moisture and the smallest contact angle whilst modal fibres have the biggest contact angle. Pretreatment increases the sorption abilities and makes the material more accessible to chemicals used in the finishing process. Using the conventional method, it can be confirmed that fibres with the highest moisture have the smallest contact angle (tensiometry).
Keywords: textile materials, regenerated cellulose fibres, sorption, pretreatment, tensiometry
Published: 05.07.2017; Views: 279; Downloads: 58
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