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1.
Implementation of food matrix effects into chemical food contaminant risk assessment
Ana-Andreea Cioca, Tomaž Langerholc, Livija Tušar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Food risk assessment plays an important role in protecting public health worldwide. Stakeholders involved in food risk assessment, such as national authorities, agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), industry and consumers, need to properly understand the terminology of food risk assessment effectively. In this respect, the first part of the EU-FORA work programme (WP1) aimed to provide insights into the actual translation of two essential terms used in food risk assessment. ‘Hazard’ and ‘risk’ were first identified and compared between the English version of various food regulations and their equivalents in the national legislation of EU Member States. The comparison and critical evaluation revealed several inconsistencies. These inconsistencies could lead to misinterpretations, followed by errors in conducting risk assessments or communicating risks. We recommend that consistency is restored and maintained so that the message is properly communicated. The second part of the work programme (WP2) was focused on a specific area within chemical risk assessment (CRA). In this context, special attention was given to the impact of the food matrix on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of heavy metals and metalloids. After collection and careful selection of data from scientific journals, a database with information on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in different food matrices was created for future statistical analyses related to dietary exposure.
Keywords: hazard, risk, food regulation, chemical contaminants, bioavailability, bioaccessibility, food matrix
Published in DKUM: 18.09.2023; Views: 391; Downloads: 15
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2.
Polyphenols: extraction methods, antioxidative action, bioavailability and anticarcinogenic effects
Eva Brglez Mojzer, Maša Knez Marevci, Mojca Škerget, Željko Knez, Urban Bren, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.
Keywords: polyphenols, extraction, antioxidants, bioavailability, synergistic effects
Published in DKUM: 22.06.2017; Views: 1680; Downloads: 568
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