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1.
Determinants of collective failure in excitable networks
Uroš Barać, Matjaž Perc, Marko Gosak, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: We study collective failures in biologically realistic networks that consist of coupled excitable units. The networks have broad-scale degree distribution, high modularity, and small-world properties, while the excitable dynamics is determined by the paradigmatic FitzHugh–Nagumo model. We consider different coupling strengths, bifurcation distances, and various aging scenarios as potential culprits of collective failure. We find that for intermediate coupling strengths, the network remains globally active the longest if the high-degree nodes are first targets for inactivation. This agrees well with previously published results, which showed that oscillatory networks can be highly fragile to the targeted inactivation of low-degree nodes, especially under weak coupling. However, we also show that the most efficient strategy to enact collective failure does not only non-monotonically depend on the coupling strength, but it also depends on the distance from the bifurcation point to the oscillatory behavior of individual excitable units. Altogether, we provide a comprehensive account of determinants of collective failure in excitable networks, and we hope this will prove useful for better understanding breakdowns in systems that are subject to such dynamics.
Keywords: collective behavior, excitable media, complex network, neuronal dynamics
Published in DKUM: 10.06.2024; Views: 63; Downloads: 0
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2.
Physical activity drops during summer holidays for 6- to 9-year-old children
Tadeja Volmut, Rado Pišot, Jurij Planinšec, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the health risk of childhood obesity and associated chronic diseases as well as mental health problems. Since PA declines as children age as well with future generations it is of highest importance to intervene in school and out-of-school settings. Out-of-school periods affect children's PA as it is mainly left to the interest and motivation of their parents. We compared accelerometer-based PA patterns in 93 6- to 9-year old children assessed four times: before (May/June), during (August), and after (September) summer holidays and at a 1-year follow up (May/June). Before summer holidays children were assessed also for anthropometry and motor tests. During summer holidays overall PA decreased by 18% (p < 0.001), physical inactivity increased by 5.5% (p < 0.001), moderate PA decreased by 53% (p < 0.001) and moderate to vigorous PA decreased by 45% (p < 0.001) when compared to before summer holidays. Furthermore, overall PA remained diminished also after summer holidays by 8.8% (p = 0.001) but recovered to baseline values at 1-year follow up. About 30% of overall PA and moderate to vigorous PA decrease during summer holidays could be explained by children's fitness level as a greater decrease was found in children with better results in standing long jump and 300-meter running time. Our finding detects an alarming summer holiday decrease in children PA that should not be neglected in future studies and intervention designs.
Keywords: MVPA, otroci, poletne počitnice, gibalna neaktivnost, sedentarnost, pospeškometer, children, vacations, physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, accelerometer
Published in DKUM: 15.05.2024; Views: 146; Downloads: 8
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3.
Leader’s possession of linguistic intelligence in relation to leader–member exchange theory
Timotej Ribič, Miha Marič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: When practicing high-quality leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, the leader’s ability to communicate, build and maintain relationships is a vital part. Because leader–member exchange theory is a relationship-based approach to leadership that primarily includes social exchange and communication on a daily basis, we can highlight linguistic intelligence as a key leadership skill that is part of the multiple intelligences defined by Howard Gardner. The goal of this article was to conduct research into organizations where the leader applies LMX theory and examine whether the leader’s linguistic intelligence is positively related to the quality of the leader–member exchange. The dependent variable was the quality of the LMX. We were able to recruit 39 employees and 13 leaders. Correlations and multiple regressions were used to analyze our statement. The overall results are statistically significant and we conclude that there is a high positive correlation between LMX and linguistic intelligence in the organizations that were part of this study. A limitation of this study is the use of purposive sampling, which resulted in a relatively small sample size and may limit the generalization of the results to other populations.
Keywords: multiple intelligences, linguistic intelligence, communication, relationships, leadership, LMX, human resource management, organizational behavior
Published in DKUM: 26.03.2024; Views: 223; Downloads: 8
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4.
Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults : an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04899531
Keywords: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Published in DKUM: 25.03.2024; Views: 178; Downloads: 7
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5.
Suggestions and solutions for enhancing active commuting to the University of Maribor and advancing ▫$CO_2$▫ emission reduction
Beno Mesarec, Branka Trček, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: This study investigated commuting behavior at four technical faculties (BCTF) in Maribor. The main aim was to provide suggestions and solutions for challenges related to active commuting to the BCTF, while promoting advancements in CO2 emission reduction. The research methodology was based on analyses of a questionnaire survey and calculations of CO2 emissions. The results indicate that implementing measures to promote walking, bicycling and the use of city and regional public transport, in conjunction with supportive housing and parking policies, has the potential to eliminate car trips within 0–1 km of the BCTF and reduce car trips from other zones in favor of active commuting by 30% to 50%. These proposed transport scenarios could lead to an annual reduction in CO2 emissions ranging from 17% to 29%. The greatest potential for CO2 savings is observed within 0–5 km of the BCTF, where a shift to walking and bicycling could reduce emissions by up to 44%. The results also highlighted a notable disparity, indicating that students with term-time accommodations emitted 3.5 times and 4.1 times less annual CO2 within 0–5 km of the BCTF compared to students and staff commuting daily from their permanent residences in the city.
Keywords: university, travel behavior, modal choice, active mobility, CO2 emissions
Published in DKUM: 30.01.2024; Views: 295; Downloads: 17
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6.
Suggestions and solutions for enhancing active commuting to the University of Maribor and advancing ▫$CO_2$▫ emission reduction
Beno Mesarec, Branka Trček, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: This study investigated commuting behavior at four technical faculties (BCTF) in Maribor. The main aim was to provide suggestions and solutions for challenges related to active commuting to the BCTF, while promoting advancements in CO2 emission reduction. The research methodology was based on analyses of a questionnaire survey and calculations of CO2 emissions. The results indicate that implementing measures to promote walking, bicycling and the use of city and regional public transport, in conjunction with supportive housing and parking policies, has the potential to eliminate car trips within 0–1 km of the BCTF and reduce car trips from other zones in favor of active commuting by 30% to 50%. These proposed transport scenarios could lead to an annual reduction in CO2 emissions ranging from 17% to 29%. The greatest potential for CO2 savings is observed within 0–5 km of the BCTF, where a shift to walking and bicycling could reduce emissions by up to 44%. The results also highlighted a notable disparity, indicating that students with term-time accommodations emitted 3.5 times and 4.1 times less annual CO2 within 0–5 km of the BCTF compared to students and staff commuting daily from their permanent residences in the city.
Keywords: university, travel behavior, modal choice, active mobility, CO2 emissions
Published in DKUM: 30.01.2024; Views: 214; Downloads: 0

7.
Digital tools in behavior change support education in health and other students : a systematic review
Lucija Gosak, Gregor Štiglic, Leona Cilar Budler, Isa B. Félix, Katja Braam, Nino Fijačko, Mara Pereira Guerreiro, Mateja Lorber, 2022, review article

Abstract: Due to the increased prevalence of chronic diseases, behavior changes are integral to self-management. Healthcare and other professionals are expected to support these behavior changes, and therefore, undergraduate students should receive up-to-date and evidence-based training in this respect. Our work aims to review the outcomes of digital tools in behavior change support education. A secondary aim was to examine existing instruments to assess the effectiveness of these tools. A PIO (population/problem, intervention, outcome) research question led our literature search. The population was limited to students in nursing, sports sciences, and pharmacy; the interventions were limited to digital teaching tools; and the outcomes consisted of knowledge, motivation, and competencies. A systematic literature review was performed in the PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, SAGE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases and by backward citation searching. We used PRISMA guidelines 2020 to depict the search process for relevant literature. Two authors evaluated included studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) independently. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 15 studies in the final analysis: six quantitative descriptive studies, two randomized studies, six mixed methods studies, and one qualitative study. According to the MMAT, all studies were suitable for further analysis in terms of quality. The studies resorted to various digital tools to improve students’ knowledge of behavior change techniques in individuals with chronic disease, leading to greater self-confidence, better cooperation, and practical experience and skills. The most common limitations that have been perceived for using these tools are time and space constraints.
Keywords: digital tools, didactics, noncommunicable diseases, chronic diseases, behavior change support education, health science
Published in DKUM: 28.09.2023; Views: 292; Downloads: 22
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8.
The influence and application of social media in the fashion industry
Ivana Ljumović, 2022, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Social media marketing proved to be advantageous to all industries. If we consider the huge number of users on social networks and all the advantages they have, as well as their popularity, the fact arises that these networks provide significant business opportunities, i.e., contain great business potential, which they can use if they properly establish communication and advertising through these networks. Nowadays, fashion businesses are investing more time and resources into crafting social media strategies that will further customer loyalty, spread advertising messages, and raise brand awareness. Besides that, social media has a significant impact when it comes to advertising, spreading information, promoting, and selling brands. Social media platforms, such as Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, and Pinterest, are the most popular place for posting and advertising different content. Fashion is an exciting area of constant dynamic changes, and brands need to adapt to it, fashion companies cannot afford to ignore social media. This implies the importance of social media and how fashion firms can use it to their advantage. In conclusion, social media does not replace traditional media, but it does offer consumers pioneering way to interact with the brands they love. Without a doubt, digital media is the latest fashion trend in today's world, and we have every reason to believe in its strength and impact. It is an efficient and effective platform in terms of creating fashion trends and influencers, building brand recognition, and thus being accessible to both existing and potential buyers.
Keywords: social media marketing, fashion marketing, digital marketing, fashion industry, social media strategy, Instagram, customer behavior, social media
Published in DKUM: 14.07.2022; Views: 712; Downloads: 50
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9.
The Digital Pig: Automatic Systems for Behavior Detection in Weaned Pigs
Anja Lešnik, 2020, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: In this bachelor's thesis, we used machine learning techniques to detect pigs in group pens, which would help to improve the welfare and comfort of pigs. Mask-RCNN was used for object segmentation. The implementation was based on Resnet101. The goal was to achieve the highest possible precision in detection of the pig's body, head, and tail. We predicted that the accuracy will be the highest for body detection and lower for head and tail detection. We also concluded that the difference in precision and recall will be less than 10% between hand-labeled bounding boxes and the predicted bounding boxes from our model. As predicted, body detection represented the highest results, as the accuracy of head and tail detection was lower. The difference between precision and recall was 10% for body detection and higher than 10% for head and tail detection. Precision of the body detection was 96%, as the whole body is easier to detect. The head detection precision score was 66%. Tail detection precision was 77%, which is a large difference compared to the percentage of head detection. The use of machine learning in livestock farming could be a potentially useful tool for detecting welfare in pigs, as it would reduce the frequency of aggressive behaviors and the number of injuries. In the future, we want to refine our model to achieve higher precision for head and tail detection. Once the algorithm has clearly detected all the pigs in the image, we will try to refine the model to detect different forms of behavior. This technology would help us to evaluate welfare, which would be improved if necessary.
Keywords: pig, pig annotation, behavior, welfare, machine learning
Published in DKUM: 08.09.2020; Views: 982; Downloads: 180
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10.
Personality profiles and stress-coping strategies of Slovenian military pilots
Maja Meško, Damir Karpljuk, Mateja Videmšek, Iztok Podbregar, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The performance of a pilot also depends on the pilot's personality profile and their stresscoping style. In our study we aimed to analyze, by means of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) and the Coping Responses Inventory (CRI), the personality profiles, stress-coping strategies and the relationship between them among Slovenian military pilots. The study involved 120 respondents: 30 of whom were military pilots in the experimental group, while the other 90 were in the control groups. The control groups included sport pilots, the general population and soldiers with no involvement in aviation. The members of the control group were selected with regard to the characteristics of the experimental group members, so that both groups were equivalent in terms of relevant factors (e.g. gender, age, health state, level of education etc), thus participating in a study of equivalent pairs. A statistical analysis identified statistically significant differences between the groups in the following BFQ dimensions: energy, conscientiousness and emotional stability; in the dimensions of CRI 'cognitive avoidance' (cognitive effort to avoid realistic consideration of a problem); and 'emotional discharge or emptying' (behavioural attempts to alleviate tension by venting negative emotions). Results revealed that certain personality characteristics were differentially and significantly related to specific stress coping strategies adopted by military pilots.
Keywords: military pilots, Slovenia, personality, personality traits, coping behavior, coping, stress
Published in DKUM: 19.03.2020; Views: 1016; Downloads: 32
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