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The role of ascorbate–glutathione system and volatiles emitted by insect-damaged lettuce roots as navigation signals for insect and slug parasitic nematodes
Žiga Laznik, Mitja Križman, Jure Zekič, Mihaela Roškarič, Stanislav Trdan, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The effect of wireworm-damaged lettuce roots on the antioxidative defense system (ascorbate–glutathione cycle, photosynthetic pigments) and movement of insect/slug parasitic nematodes towards determined root exudates was studied in a glasshouse experiment. Lettuce seedlings were grown in a substrate soil in the absence/presence of wireworms (Elateridae). The ascorbate– glutathione system and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by HPLC, while volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by lettuce roots were investigated by GC-MS. Herbivore-induced root compounds, namely 2,4-nonadienal, glutathione, and ascorbic acid, were selected for a chemotaxis assay with nematodes Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Phasmarhabditis papillosa, and Oscheius myriophilus. Root pests had a negative effect on the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of infested plants, indicating that they reacted to the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using lettuce as a model plant, we recognized the ascorbate–glutathione system as a redox hub in defense response against wireworms and analyzed its role in root-exudate-mediated chemotaxis of nematodes. Infected plants also demonstrated increased levels of volatile 2,4-nonadienal. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs, S. feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and H. bacteriophora) proved to be more mobile than parasitic nematodes O. myriophilus and P. papillosa towards chemotaxis compounds. Among them, 2,4-nonadienal repelled all tested nematodes. Most exudates that are involved in belowground tritrophic interactions remain unknown, but an increasing effort is being made in this field of research. Understanding more of these complex interactions would not only allow a better understanding of the rhizosphere but could also offer ecologically sound alternatives in the pest management of agricultural systems.
Keywords: lettuce, wireworms, ascorbate–glutathione system, root volatile organic compounds, entomopathogenic nematodes, slug parasitic nematodes
Published in DKUM: 15.02.2024; Views: 261; Downloads: 7
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Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus
Mateja Felicijan, Metka Novak, Nada Kraševec, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758) and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP) cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus) and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica).
Keywords: antioxidants, ascorbate-glutathione system, blue-stain fungus, Norway spruce, phenolics, systemic acquired resistance
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 1702; Downloads: 426
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