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Eco-finishing of cotton with chitosan and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Aiton) aqueous extract for development of antioxidant and UV protective textiles
Sebastijan Šmid, Anja Verbič, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Marija Gorjanc, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Giant goldenrod (S. gigantea Aiton) is considered an invasive weed in Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. In this research, the untreated and chitosan-treated cotton fabrics were functionalized with goldenrod inflorescences aqueous extract, at room temperature and 95°C. Zeta potential of fabrics was determined as a function of pH and the results showed an increased isoelectric point from 2.50 to 5.25 and amphoteric character of the chitosan-treated sample. The antioxidant activity (AA) of extract and functionalized fabrics was determined using DPPH analysis, while color and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) were determined spectroscopically before and after wash and lightfastness testing. The chitosan pretreatment and dyeing of cotton at higher temperature increased AA (from 41.19 ± 0.28 to 56.08 ± 0.25), UPF (from 33.05 to 51.59) and color strength (K/S) (from 1.74 to 2.21), providing dyed cotton with excellent UV protection and a free radical inhibition activity. The samples had good wash fastness in terms of color (ΔEab* < 1), but not in terms of UV protection (UPF value decreased after washing to 23.47). The overall lightfastness was good to excellent (the UPF values of chitosan and dyed samples did not change much after lightfastness test (UPF = 51.75).
Keywords: Goldenrod, invasive plant, eco-functionalisation, cotton, antioxidant activity, UV protection
Published in DKUM: 25.03.2024; Views: 145; Downloads: 8
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Antioxidant activity of different hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genotypes
Zala Kolenc, Tamara Hribernik, Tomaž Langerholc, Maša Pintarič, Maja Prevolnik Povše, Urban Bren, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The antioxidant activity (AA) of hop extracts obtained from different hop genotypes (n = 14) was studied. For comparison, the purified β-acids-rich fraction and α-acids-with-β-acids-rich fraction were also used to test the antioxidative potential. The AA of purified hydroacetonic hop extracts was investigated using the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC) and Intracellular Antioxidant (IA) methods. The FRAP values in different hop genotypes ranged between 63.5 and 101.6 μmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g dry weight (DW), the ORAC values ranged between 1069 and 1910 μmol TE/g DW and IA potential values ranged between 52.7 and 118.0 mmol TE/g DW. Significant differences in AA between hop genotypes were observed with all three methods. AAs were determined using three different methods, which did not highly correlate with each other. We also did not find significant correlations between AA and different chemical components, which applies both to AA determined using individual methods as well as the total AA. Based on this fact, we assume that the synergistic or antagonistic effects between hop compounds have a more pronounced effect on AA than the presence and quantity of individual hop compounds.
Keywords: hop, antioxidant activity, FRAP, ORAC, intracellular antioxidative potential, genotypes
Published in DKUM: 20.03.2024; Views: 174; Downloads: 7
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Kraft lignin/tannin as a potential accelerator of antioxidant and antibacterial properties in an active thermoplastic polyester-based multifunctional material
Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Alexandra Zamboulis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Alexandra Aulova, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This research focuses on key priorities in the field of sustainable plastic composites that will lead to a reduction in CO2 pollution and support the EU’s goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050. The main challenge is to develop high-performance polyphenol-reinforced thermoplastic composites, where the use of natural fillers replaces the usual chemical additives with non-toxic ones, not only to improve the final performance but also to increase the desired multifunctionalities (structural, antioxidant, and antibacterial). Therefore, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composites based on Kraft lignin (KL) and tannin (TANN) were investigated. Two series of PLA composites, PLA-KL and PLA-TANN, which contained natural fillers (0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5% (w/w)) were prepared by hot melt extrusion. The effects of KL and TANN on the PLA matrices were investigated, especially the surface physicochemical properties, mechanical properties, and antioxidant/antimicrobial activity. The surface physicochemical properties were evaluated by measuring the contact angle (CA), roughness, zeta potential, and nanoindentation. The results of the water contact angle showed that neither KL nor TANN caused a significant change in the wettability, but only a slight increase in the hydrophilicity of the PLA composites. The filler loading, the size of the particles with their available functional groups on the surfaces of the PLA composites, and the interaction between the filler and the PLA polymer depend on the roughness and zeta potential behavior of the PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites and ultimately improve the surface mechanical properties. The antioxidant properties of the PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites were determined using the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test. The results show an efficient antioxidant behavior of all PLA-KL and PLA-TANN composites, which increases with the filler content. Finally, the KL- and PLA-based TANN have shown resistance to the Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, but without a correlation trend between polyphenol filler content and structure.
Keywords: poly (lactic acid), Kraft lignin, tannin, multifunctionality of PLA composites, surface mechanical properties, antioxidant/antibacterial activity
Published in DKUM: 18.09.2023; Views: 403; Downloads: 17
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Green techniques for preparation of red beetroot extracts with enhanced biological potential
Dragana Borjan, Vanja Šeregelj, Darija Cör Andrejč, Lato Pezo, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Željko Knez, Jelena J. Vulić, Maša Knez Marevci, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Red beetroot is well known for its high proportion of betalains, with great potential as functional food ingredients due to their health-promoting properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of processing techniques such as Soxhlet, cold, ultrasound and supercritical fluid extraction on the betalains content and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihyperglycemic activities. Whilst Soxhlet extraction with water has provided the highest yield, the highest content of total phenolics was found in an extract prepared using Soxhlet extraction with 50% ethanol. Amongst eight phenolic compounds detected in the extracts, protocatechuic acid was the most abundant. The concentrations of total phenolics ranged from 12.09 mg/g (ultrasound extraction with 30% methanol) to 18.60 mg/g (Soxhlet extraction with 50% ethanol). The highest anti-inflammatory activity was observed for cold extraction with 50% methanol extract. The high radical scavenging activity of supercritical fluid extracts could be a consequence of nonphenolic compounds. The chemometrics approach was further used to analyse the results to find the “greenest” method for further possible application in the processing of beetroot in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. According to the standard score, the best extraction method was determined to be Soxhlet extraction with 50% ethanol.
Keywords: red beetroot, supercritical fluid extraction, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antihyperglycemic activity, chemometric approach
Published in DKUM: 18.08.2023; Views: 345; Downloads: 24
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Strawberries from integrated and organic production : mineral contents and antioxidant activity
Janja Kristl, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Branko Kramberger, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: As the nutritional quality of food is becoming increasingly more important forconsumers, significant attention needs to be devoted to agricultural practices and their influences on the nutrient contents in food. The presentedinvestigation studied the mineral contents and antioxidant activitiesin the fruits of four organically-grown strawberry cultivars 'St. Pierre', 'Elsanta', 'Sugar Lia' and 'Thuchampion' when compared to those of integrated-grown plants. The strawberries were digested and analyzed for K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn using an atomic absorption spectrometer, whilst P was analyzed using a vanadate-molybdate method. In addition, antioxidant activity was estimated by using the ABTS assay. The results showed that the mineral contents and antioxidant activities in strawberries depends on the cultivar, and its production system. Organically-grown fruits showed higher antioxidant activities and Cu content than the integrated fruits, whilst the integrated fruits were superior in their contents of P, K, Mg, Fe and Mn. All the cultivars showed similar Zn content, probably reflecting the fact that the Zn content in strawberries does not depend on the cultivar.
Keywords: strawberries, minerals, antioxidant activity, production system
Published in DKUM: 30.12.2015; Views: 1404; Downloads: 140
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Potential of phenolic antioxidants
Iva Ružić, Mojca Škerget, Željko Knez, 2010, review article

Abstract: In vitro studies have shown a link between the consumption of food rich in (poly)phenols, especially flavonoids, and reduced risk of coronary heart diseases. Several flavonoids have been reported to prevent low density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation in vitro. The aim of our work was to determine antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of flavonoids myricetin,quercetin, rutin, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin gallate and to study the influence of chemical structure and flavonoid interactions on the ability to inhibit oxidation and scavenge free radicals. Two in vitro methods, i.e. oxidation of â-carotene in an emulsion system and DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, were applied. In addition, a review of in vivo studies that investigate the effectiveness of food flavonoids in reducing oxidative damage in human body was done and their results were analyzed and compared to in vitro results obtained in our laboratory. Although all tested flavonoids except apigenin showed strong antioxidant and antiradical properties in vitro, these findings can not be completely confirmed from the reviewed in vivo human studies since those results are sometimes contradictoryand inconsistent.
Keywords: phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, antiradical activity
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1401; Downloads: 77
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Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of PGSStm micronized curcuma powder
Željko Knez, Tina Perko, Mojca Škerget, 2012, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, curcumin extract
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1255; Downloads: 30
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Iva Ružić, 2012, dissertation

Abstract: Grapes and wine production residuals, containing grape skins, seeds and stems, represent important sources of phenolic compounds. Red wines are rich in phenolic antioxidants while white wines generally show lower (poly)phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The main difference in the production of white and red wines is the fermentation step. The fermentation of red grapes includes maceration, i.e. it takes place in both liquid and solid parts of the grape. In the case of white wines, the must is clarified before the fermentation starts, cultured yeasts are added to convert the must to wine and antioxidant sulfur dioxide is inserted to protect the wine. The objective of the PhD research was to study antioxidant potential of white grape phenolics both in raw material and fermentation products. First, the standards of phenolic compounds commonly found in white grapes and wines were tested for their antioxidant and antiradical activity. All tested compounds except apigenin showed strong antioxidant and antiradical properties. Afterwards, conventional solid-liquid extraction (CE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of phenolic compounds from grape seeds were performed. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated and extracts were analyzed in order to determine their total phenolic content, individual phenolic compounds and antiradical potential. Two different drying methods (hot air and freeze drying) were applied to the seeds. Solvent efficiencies of water, ethanol and water-ethanol mixtures were compared at different temperatures. In addition, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 was investigated as the technique for the recovery of phenolic compounds and for the pretreatment of white grape seed samples. Both CE and PLE gave extracts rich in phenolic compounds with good antiradical properties and, generally, the best results were obtained with PLE at 130°C. At the end, the influence of maceration process on the content and the activity of grape phenolic antioxidants in white wines was studied. For such a purpose, six commercially available macerated white wines from Italy and Croatia were analyzed. In addition, eight non-macerated wines from the same region and variety were studied and compared to macerated wines. The experiments have shown that the maceration process increases the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of the wine. It enables the production of white wines rich in phenolic compounds and with strong antiradical properties in completely natural way using only the grapes and without addition of any chemical agents.
Keywords: white grapes, white wine, maceration, antioxidant activity, polyphenols, extraction, PLE, SFE.
Published in DKUM: 05.04.2012; Views: 2882; Downloads: 176
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