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Sarcopenia, obesity, and their association with selected behavioral factors in active older adults
Kaja Teraž, Miloš Kalc, Manca Peskar, Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Primož Pori, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: The number of obese people in the world is increasing, as is the number of sarcopenic people among the older adults. Although both states are concerning, they can be positively influenced by selected behavioral factors such as adequate nutrition and physical activity. We were interested in the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in active older people and the influence of behavioral factors on this phenomenon. Methods: The study included 38 older adults (21 women) with a mean age of 75.3 ± 5.0 years. Sarcopenic parameters were determined with different tests: Handgrip Test, Chair Stand Test, Gait Speed, Timed Up and Go Test, and Short Physical Performance Battery. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity level was measured using accelerometers, and nutritional status was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and MEDLIFE Index questionnaire. Results: Of all included active participants (the average number of steps per day was 8,916 ± 3,543), 47.4% of them were obese. Of all included women, 52.4% were obese. Sarcopenic obesity was found in three (7.9%) participants. Nutritional status correlated with strength of lower extremities and physical performance tests (gait speed, Timed Up and Go Test and Short Physical performance battery). Higher number of steps per day positively correlates with physical performance. Discussion: Interestingly, we did not find any correlation between the main obesity parameter such as percent body fat or body mass index (and thus sarcopenic obesity) and any of the selected behavioral factors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, or dietary habits). In conclusion, reaching the recommended levels of physical activity in older adults may not be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of obesity and sarcopenic obesity.
Keywords: aging, physical activity, nutrition, healthy lifestyle, body composition, sarcopenia
Published in DKUM: 27.05.2024; Views: 101; Downloads: 2
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Age-related changes in lipid and glucose levels associated with drug use and mortality : an observational study
Rene Markovič, Vladimir Grubelnik, Helena Blažun Vošner, Peter Kokol, Matej Završnik, Karmen Janša, Marjeta Zupet, Jernej Završnik, Marko Marhl, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is complex and still unclear in some details. The main feature of diabetes mellitus is high serum glucose, and the question arises of whether there are other statistically observable dysregulations in laboratory measurements before the state of hyperglycemia becomes severe. In the present study, we aim to examine glucose and lipid profiles in the context of age, sex, medication use, and mortality. Methods: We conducted an observational study by analyzing laboratory data from 506,083 anonymized laboratory tests from 63,606 different patients performed by a regional laboratory in Slovenia between 2008 and 2019. Laboratory data-based results were evaluated in the context of medication use and mortality. The medication use database contains anonymized records of 1,632,441 patients from 2013 to 2018, and mortality data were obtained for the entire Slovenian population. Results: We show that the highest percentage of the population with elevated glucose levels occurs approximately 20 years later than the highest percentage with lipid dysregulation. Remarkably, two distinct inflection points were observed in these laboratory results. The first inflection point occurs at ages 55 to 59 years, corresponding to the greatest increase in medication use, and the second coincides with the sharp increase in mortality at ages 75 to 79 years. Conclusions: Our results suggest that medications and mortality are important factors affecting population statistics and must be considered when studying metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia using laboratory data.
Keywords: diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hematological data, aging
Published in DKUM: 21.05.2024; Views: 112; Downloads: 1
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Assistive digital technology to promote quality of life and independent living for older adults through improved self-regulation : ǂa ǂscoping review
Gaja Zager Kocjan, Tanja Špes, Matija Svetina, Nejc Plohl, Urška Smrke, Izidor Mlakar, Bojan Musil, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Digital technologies can be a key component in helping older adults maintain their autonomy and quality of life in their homes and communities. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the existing literature on the role of assistive digital technologies in promoting a higher quality of life and independent living for older adults by supporting their self-regulation in various aspects of daily living. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Major electronic databases were searched to identify relevant articles published between 2012 and 2022. A total of 972 articles were identified, of which 19 articles met all inclusion criteria. Results are presented in four categories: (i) types of digital technologies, (ii) quality of life domains, (iii) quality of life benefits, and (iv) technological aspects supporting self-regulation. Our review also showed that successful adoption of assistive technologies depends on older adults’ trust in these technologies and the perceived benefits of technological support. Early involvement of older adults in the development of assistive technologies appears to play an important role in their technological self-efficacy. The limitations of the studies reviewed are discussed, and some general guidelines for future research in this area are suggested.
Keywords: digitalna tehnologija, podporna tehnologija, kakovost življenja, staranje, samouravnavanje, pregledni članek, digital technology, assistive technology, quality of life, aging, self-regulation, scoping review
Published in DKUM: 27.02.2024; Views: 229; Downloads: 5
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Evaluation of the impact and fracture toughness of a nanostructured bainitic steel with low retained austenite content
Mihael Brunčko, Peter Kirbiš, Ivan Anžel, Leo Gusel, Darja Feizpour, Tomaž Irgolič, Tomaž Vuherer, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The impact and fracture toughness of a nanostructured, kinetically activated bainitic steel was determined using Standard methods. Prior to testing, the steel was quenched in oil and aged naturally for a period of 10 days in order to obtain a fully bainitic microstructure with a retained austenite content below 1%, resulting in a high hardness of 62HRC. The high hardness originated from the very fine microstructure of bainitic ferrite plates formed at low temperatures. It was determined that the impact toughness of the steel in the fully aged condition improved remarkably, whereas the fracture toughness was in line with expectations based on the extrapolated data available in the literature. This suggests that a very fine microstructure is most beneficial to rapid loading conditions, whereas material flaws such as coarse nitrides and non-metallic inclusions are the major limitation for obtaining a high fracture toughness.
Keywords: evaluation of fracture toughness, impact toughness, nanostructured bainite, natural aging, low retained austenite content, kinetically activated bainite KAB
Published in DKUM: 16.02.2024; Views: 311; Downloads: 19
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Protective role of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins against age-related oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Maša Čater, Lidija Križančić Bombek, 2022, review article

Abstract: The accumulation of oxidative damage to DNA and other biomolecules plays an important role in the etiology of aging and age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is especially sensitive to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the accumulation of mtDNA damage impairs normal cellular function and leads to a bioenergetic crisis that accelerates aging and associated diseases. Age-related mitochondrial dysfunction decreases ATP production, which directly affects insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and triggers the gradual development of the chronic metabolic dysfunction that characterizes T2D. At the same time, decreased glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle due to mitochondrial damage leads to prolonged postprandial blood glucose rise, which further worsens glucose homeostasis. ROS are not only highly reactive by-products of mitochondrial respiration capable of oxidizing DNA, proteins, and lipids but can also function as signaling and effector molecules in cell membranes mediating signal transduction and inflammation. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various tissues can be activated by ROS to protect cells from mitochondrial damage. Mitochondrial UCPs facilitate the reflux of protons from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the matrix, thereby dissipating the proton gradient required for oxidative phosphorylation. There are five known isoforms (UCP1-UCP5) of mitochondrial UCPs. UCP1 can indirectly reduce ROS formation by increasing glutathione levels, thermogenesis, and energy expenditure. In contrast, UCP2 and UCP3 regulate fatty acid metabolism and insulin secretion by beta cells and modulate insulin sensitivity. Understanding the functions of UCPs may play a critical role in developing pharmacological strategies to combat T2D. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the protective role of various UCP homologs against age-related oxidative stress in T2D.
Keywords: uncoupling proteins, reactive oxygen species, aging, age-related diseases, diabetes
Published in DKUM: 23.08.2023; Views: 372; Downloads: 23
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Fine-tuning cardiac insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling to promote health and longevity
Mahmoud Abdellatif, Viktoria Herbst, Alexander Martin Heberle, Alina Humnig, Tobias Pendl, Sylvère Durand, Giulia Cerrato, Sebastian J Hofer, Moydul Islam, Julia Voglhuber, Simon Sedej, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and aging. Although its inhibition promotes longevity across species, the effect of attenuated IGF1 signaling on cardiac aging remains controversial. Methods: We performed a lifelong study to assess cardiac health and lifespan in 2 cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic mouse models with enhanced versus reduced IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling. Male mice with human IGF1R overexpression or dominant negative phosphoinositide 3-kinase mutation were examined at different life stages by echocardiography, invasive hemodynamics, and treadmill coupled to indirect calorimetry. In vitro assays included cardiac histology, mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, autophagic flux, and targeted metabolome profiling, and immunoblots of key IGF1R downstream targets in mouse and human explanted failing and nonfailing hearts, as well. Results: Young mice with increased IGF1R signaling exhibited superior cardiac function that progressively declined with aging in an accelerated fashion compared with wild-type animals, resulting in heart failure and a reduced lifespan. In contrast, mice with low cardiac IGF1R signaling exhibited inferior cardiac function early in life, but superior cardiac performance during aging, and increased maximum lifespan, as well. Mechanistically, the late-life detrimental effects of IGF1R activation correlated with suppressed autophagic flux and impaired oxidative phosphorylation in the heart. Low IGF1R activity consistently improved myocardial bioenergetics and function of the aging heart in an autophagy-dependent manner. In humans, failing hearts, but not those with compensated hypertrophy, displayed exaggerated IGF1R expression and signaling activity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the relationship between IGF1R signaling and cardiac health is not linear, but rather biphasic. Hence, pharmacological inhibitors of the IGF1 pathway, albeit unsuitable for young individuals, might be worth considering in older adults.
Keywords: aging, autophagy, cardiomyopathies, insulin-like growth factor 1, mitochondria, mouse, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases
Published in DKUM: 11.08.2023; Views: 426; Downloads: 34
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Independence and caregiver preferences among community-dwelling older people in Slovenia : a cross-sectional study
Katarina Galof, Anja Žnidaršič, Zvone Balantič, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Although Slovenia is becoming an aging society, very little is known about the abilities and needs of home-dwelling older people or their preferences regarding assistance. The aim of the study was to explore the need for assistance in daily activities among older Slovenian people living at home. Older adults aged between 65 and 97 years (N = 358) participated in the crosssectional survey study. A questionnaire that assessed independence in daily activities and assistance in the home environment was developed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a nonparametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank test), and the chi-square test. The results showed that older Slovenians were more independent in activities of daily living (ADLs) than instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Independence was the highest for using the toilet, feeding, and mobility transfers, and the lowest for bathing. With IADLs, assistance was most often required with shopping and housework; this assistance was usually provided by family members. The provider of assistance was generally compatible with older people’s preferences concerning assistance at home. We found no differences in care preferences between urban and rural settings. Assistance in the home environment was predominantly provided by unpaid helpers, which reflects recent developments in health and social services that put an emphasis on a person’s social network. Due to demographic changes and the decrease in the number of adult children, reliance on close relatives might soon become a challenge. These findings can help policy makers understand older people’s choices and preferences better when planning long-term care.
Keywords: older adults, activities of daily living, intergenerational support, long-term care, aging in place
Published in DKUM: 14.07.2023; Views: 437; Downloads: 23
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Inter-person differences in isometric coactivations of triceps surae and tibialis anterior decrease in young, but not in older adults after 14 days of bed rest
Matjaž Divjak, Gašper Sedej, Nina Murks, Mitja Gerževič, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Aleš Holobar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: We examined activation patterns of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), soleus (SO), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in eight older (58.4 ± 3.3 years) and seven young (23.1 ± 2.9 years) participants, before and after 14 days of horizontal bed rest. Visual feedback on the exerted muscle torque was provided to the participants. The discharge patterns of individual motor units (MUs) were studied in three repetitions of isometric plantar flexion at 30 and 60% of Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC), before, and 1 day after the 14-day bed rest, respectively. In the GL and GM muscles, the older participants demonstrated higher MU discharge rates than the young, regardless of the contraction level, both before and after the bed rest. In the TA and SO muscles, the differences between the older and young participants were less consistent. Detailed analysis revealed person-specific changes in the MU discharge rates after the bed rest. To quantify the coactivation patterns we calculated the correlation coefficients between the cumulative spike trains of identified MUs from each muscle, and measured the root mean square difference of the correlation coefficients between the trials of the same session (intra-session variability) and between different sessions (inter-session variability) in each participant (intra-person comparison) and across participants (inter-person comparison). In the intra-person comparison, the inter-session variability was higher than the intra-session variability, either before or after the bed rest. At 60% MVC torque, the young demonstrated higher inter-person variability of coactivation than the older participants, but this variability decreased significantly after the bed rest. In older participants, inter-person variability was consistently lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque. In young participants, inter-person variability became lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque only after the bed rest. Precaution is required when analyzing the MU discharge and coactivation patterns, as individual persons demonstrate individual adaptations to aging or bed rest.
Keywords: mišičnoskeletni sistem, mišice, bed rest, staranje, elektromiografija, high density electromyography, muscle disuse, motor units, discharge rate, aging
Published in DKUM: 07.07.2023; Views: 464; Downloads: 46
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Community health nursing in Slovenia and Croatia - selected legal aspects
Suzana Kraljić, Blanka Kačer, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: This article is dedicated to community health nursing which today constitutes the indispensable cornerstone of Slovenian and Croatian primary health-care. Authors also stress that community health nursing is recognized of crucial importance for public health and various vulnerable groups (e.g., children, elderly, ...) in many other European as well as non-European states. In Chapter 2, the authors represent basic historical milestones in both countries, Slovenia and Croatia, which have common historical roots. In Chapters 3 and 4, the central part of the article, authors analyze the current legal regulation related to community health nursing and thereby give special attention to differences in both national legal regulations. The major difference is given in concessions. Namely in Slovenia, community health nursing can be performed also based on a granted concession, but not in Croatia. In Chapter 5, some legal views on the role of community health nursing in local communities are emphasized (e.g., domestic violence). The last chapter is dedicated to the summarization of the authors' conclusions, in which they especially stress that the community health nursing in both countries today represents an important key factor for ensuring the constitutional right to health-care.
Keywords: community health nurse, primary care, aging population, concession, legal regulation
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2021; Views: 951; Downloads: 54
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Pomen poznavanja dejanskega stanja hidravličnega olja kot osnova za strateška odločanja
Darko Lovrec, Vito Tič, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Običajna hidravlična olja na mineralni osnovi in turbinska olja, katera se uporabljajo na strojih in napravah imajo različno dolgo uporabno dobo. Ta je odvisna od vrste različnih faktorjev: od pravilnega vzdrževanja in uporabljen vrste nadzora in aktivnosti in od skrbne izbire vrste olja. Mehanizmi staranja hidravličnih olj in pa vzroki, zakaj jih je potrebno zamenjati so sicer zelo dobro znani uporabnikom, manj poznano pa je dejstvo, da so med posameznimi vrstami olj velike razlike glede njihove vzdržljivosti, ko so le ta izpostavljena delovnim pogojem stroja. Vsako podaljšanje uporabne dobe hidravličnega ali turbinskega olja ponuja tako finančne kot okoljske prednosti, a predpostavlja poznavanje dejanskega stanja olja. Za namene ocene preostale uporabne dobe olja, je v prispevku predstavljena nova metoda za primerna za on-line nadzor stanja in za testiranje vzdržljivosti oz. oksidacijske odpornosti različnih hidravličnih olj. Rezultati takšnega testiranja uporabniku nudijo možnost strateškega odločanja pri postopku nabave najprimernejšega olja z dolgo uporabno dobo.
Keywords: hydraulic oil, aging, on-line monitoring, testing, strategical decision-making
Published in DKUM: 10.10.2017; Views: 1268; Downloads: 63
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