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Robotic bin-picking : benchmarking robotics grippers with modified YCB object and model set
Tone Lerher, Primož Bencak, Luka Bizjak, Darko Hercog, Boris Jerman, 2023, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Robotic bin-picking is increasingly important in the order-picking process in intralogistics. However, many aspects of the robotic bin-picking process (object detection, grasping, manipulation) still require the research community's attention. Established methods are used to test robotic grippers, enabling comparability of the research community's results. This study presents a modified YCB Robotic Gripper Assessment Protocol that was used to evaluate the performance of four robotic grippers (twofingered, vacuum, gecko, and soft gripper). During the testing, 45 objects from the modified YCB Object and Model Set from the packaging categories, tools, small objects, spherical objects, and deformable objects were grasped and manipulated. The results of the robotic gripper evaluation show that while some robotic grippers performed substantially well, there is an expressive grasp success variation over diverse objects. The results indicate that selecting the object grasp point next to selecting the most suitable robotic gripper is critical in successful object grasping. Therefore, we propose grasp point determination using mechanical software simulation with a model of a two-fingered gripper in an ADAMS/MATLAB cosimulation. Performing software simulations for this task can save time and give comparable results to real-world experiments.
Keywords: intralogistics, robotic bin-picking, YCB protocol, robotic gripper evaluation, mechanical software simulations, performance analysis
Published in DKUM: 21.03.2024; Views: 176; Downloads: 9
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A company’s carbon footprint and sustainable development
Jure Gramc, Rok Stropnik, Mitja Mori, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Climate changes are already here. And they will get much worse in time. The main reason for global warming is GHG emissions from anthropological sources. That includes transportation, industry, electricity production, agriculture, and others. The European Union has introduced a new Green Deal as an answer to climate change. The European Green Deal puts more pressure on companies to mitigate their carbon footprint and implement sustainable development. One of the basic steps in the analysis of the environmental profile of a company is the identification of hot spots by using the carbon footprint methodology. The workflow of the carbon footprint calculation follows GHG Protocol standardised methodology. The calculation was made for a medium-sized company in the plastics industry. For all GHG emission sources, hot spots were identified and analysed. Based on the hot spots, sensitivity analysis for different pre-defined scenarios has been made, which are aligned with the company’s mid- and long-term sustainability goals. The three main hot spots of the company within scopes 1 and 2 are purchased heat, purchased electricity, and combustion of fuels in company vehicles. GHG emissions of heat and electricity are dependent on their distributor and their electricity and heat sources. The hot spot of scope 3 is purchased goods, especially plastic granulate. In the study, we focus only on scope 1 and scope 2.
Keywords: carbon footprint, sustainable development, environmental impacts, GHG Protocol, greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, sensitivity analysis
Published in DKUM: 30.10.2023; Views: 428; Downloads: 9
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Logistics systems in economics: an example of system application in a company
Čedomir Božić, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: In modern society, which is characterized by process of rapid change in the logistics sector, including supply chain, transport and Internet protocols, and which are partly conditioned by changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, placement and sale of products within retail chains requires a stronger marketing strategy which would significantly promote the benefits of their purchase. Based on the presented facts, we can state that the logistics management process, which includes supply chain risk management, is a continuous task whose main task is to anticipate possible risks, take action during their period and minimize the consequences of all forms (types) of risk business. Every institution and economic organization in our country should seriously and continuously approach the identification of risks by the type of risk and appropriate action to eliminate it. The consequence of adequate risk management is transparent and more efficient business operations that lead to a more prosperous and profitable business. The type and manner of risks, as well as the definition of measures and strategies that will be applied to eliminate them, requires a significant commitment of funds. Sometimes it is enough to react in time and prevent actions that require minimal engagement to prevent consequences that can have significant negative consequences such as domino effects. The consequences of the economic sector, actions, and measures taken often have a consequential impact on the country's overall political, social, and economic system. Therefore special attention is paid to the protection and prevention of risks in banking to avoid sudden changes and adverse effects of monetary policy. The contribution to market stability is of public and national interest, so paying more attention to one of the primary problems in business and risk management. Within the operation of the economic system, there are a large number of employees, and therefore it is vital to properly delegate functions, powers, and tasks and, by them, adequate responsibilities, obligations, tasks, rights, and consequences. The work aims to analyze different types of logistics system operations and ways of classifying their functions in supply. Also, the work tries to identify the most critical subjects of logistics services. The work aims to also analyze different types of operations of logistics systems, as well as how their functions are classified, namely functions that facilitate the supply of a particular area. This master's thesis aims to identify the most critical subjects of logistics services within the management of logistics operations with intermediaries' participation and identify their tasks and objectives. The first part of the master's thesis is dedicated to supplying chains as an integral part of logistics systems in economics, their concept and significance, their supply chain management goals, its key components, significance and type of supply chain risks, and their impact on logistics. The second part of the master's thesis is dedicated to the role of transport within logistics systems, the concept, function, and importance of intermodal transport within logistics, the importance and share of intermodal transport costs in the logistics system, and the role of logistics in intermodal transport in the European Union and the USA. The third part of the master's thesis deals with explaining Internet protocols within logistics, defining the concept with an explanation of the elements and functions of Internet network protocols, and the levels of the reference OSI model. In the fourth part, the functioning of logistics within the company LIDL is presented. In the last part of the master's thesis, there are concluding remarks with the used literature.
Keywords: logistics, logistics systems, supply chain, intermodal transport, internet protocol
Published in DKUM: 04.11.2022; Views: 526; Downloads: 30
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Modeling, simulation, and verification of a Bounded Retransmission Protocol using Spin model checker and SpinRCP integrated development environment : master's thesis
Pero Buden, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: Simple Promela Interpreter (Spin) is a model checker that uses Protocol Meta Language (PROMELA) to describe systems. Unfortunately, PROMELA does not support any time constructs, limiting the implementation of a Bounded Retransmission Protocol (BRP) in Spin's integrated development environment called Spin Rich Client Platform (SpinRCP). In the master's thesis, we model, simulate, and verify four versions of BRP. The first two versions are modeled without a timer, and with the others we show two different ways to simulate timers in PROMELA. The tests we run will show the time and space complexity of verifying each version depending on the size of the file sent and the number of retries to send each chunk.
Keywords: model checker, Bounded Retransmission Protocol, Spin, SpinRCP, timer
Published in DKUM: 20.10.2022; Views: 380; Downloads: 32
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Simulations of VoIP applications in INET framework
Sebastijan Horvatić, 2017, master's thesis

Abstract: This master's thesis describes the support for modelling Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications in the INET Framework. First, it briefly presents the VoIP technology and factors responsible for the VoIP quality of service. Next, the thesis moves on to discuss the OMNeT++ environment and the INET Framework, their installation and usage. Following this, it examines all of the INET packages and modules available for VoIP modelling, with all VoIP-related INET examples then shortly described and tested. By using INET, our own network and application models are created and simulated using different parameters. Comparisons of the simulation results are carried out and some of the best-found parameters for the VoIP communications are presented. At last, the calculation of jitter by using the obtained simulation results and Excel program is described, because jitter is not shown in the simulation results in INET.
Keywords: voice over internet protocol, performance analysis, simulation, real-time transport protocol, user datagram protocol
Published in DKUM: 18.08.2017; Views: 1479; Downloads: 135
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Isolation and characterization of human articular chondrocytes from surgical waste after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)
Jakob Naranđa, Lidija Gradišnik, Mario Gorenjak, Matjaž Vogrin, Uroš Maver, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cartilage tissue engineering is a fast-evolving field of biomedical engineering, in which the chondrocytes represent the most commonly used cell type. Since research in tissue engineering always consumes a lot of cells, simple and cheap isolation methods could form a powerful basis to boost such studies and enable their faster progress to the clinics. Isolated chondrocytes can be used for autologous chondrocyte implantation in cartilage repair, and are the base for valuable models to investigate cartilage phenotype preservation, as well as enable studies of molecular features, nature and scales of cellular responses to alterations in the cartilage tissue. METHODS: Isolation and consequent cultivation of primary human adult articular chondrocytes from the surgical waste obtained during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was performed. To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of the isolated cells, gene expression of collagen type 2 (COL2), collagen 1 (COL1) and aggrecan (ACAN) was evaluated. Immunocytochemical staining of all mentioned proteins was performed to evaluate chondrocyte specific production. RESULTS: Cartilage specific gene expression of COL2 and ACAN has been shown that the proposed protocol leads to isolation of cells with a high chondrogenic potential, possibly even specific phenotype preservation up to the second passage. COL1 expression has confirmed the tendency of the isolated cells dedifferentiation into a fibroblast-like phenotype already in the second passage, which confirms previous findings that higher passages should be used with care in cartilage tissue engineering. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, immunocytochemical staining of the evaluated chondrocyte specific products was performed as well. DISCUSSION: In this study, we developed a protocol for isolation and consequent cultivation of primary human adult articular chondrocytes with the desired phenotype from the surgical waste obtained during TKA. TKA is a common and very frequently performed orthopaedic surgery during which both femoral condyles are removed. The latter present the ideal source for a simple and relatively cheap isolation of chondrocytes as was confirmed in our study.
Keywords: aggrecan, collagen 2, gene expression, human articular chondrocytes, isolation protocol, phenotype preservation, TKA, total knee arthroplasty
Published in DKUM: 02.08.2017; Views: 1641; Downloads: 640
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Saša Tompa, 2016, master's thesis

Abstract: Številni primeri iz prakse in analize potrjujejo ključno povezavo med uspešnostjo podjetja in okoljskim delovanjem le-tega. Ogljični odtis organizacije in ogljični odtis za proizvode oziroma storitve sta ena izmed možnosti za okoljsko ozaveščanje podjetja, uporabnikov proizvodov ter storitev podjetja. Ogljični odtis (angl. »Carbon footprint«) je seštevek toplogrednih plinov, ki jih je neposredno in posredno povzročil posameznik, organizacija, dogodek ali proizvod in je izražen kot ekvivalent ogljikovega dioksida (CO2-ekv). Izračun ogljičnega odtisa je za podjetje koristen zaradi upravljanja z emisijami toplogrednih plinov (TGP), nižanja stroškov, primerjave emisij med podjetji v panogi ter zaradi poročanja tretjim osebam. Glavni cilj magistrske naloge je postavitev modela ogljičnega odtisa za telekomunikacijsko podjetje po mednarodno uveljavljeni metodologiji GHG Protocol. V ta namen smo ugotavljali emisije TGP po procesih oz. aktivnostih v izbranem podjetju in ugotovili, katerim virom emisij TGP velja posvetiti še posebno pozornost. Ogljični odtis je smiselno primerjati s podjetji v panogi, zato smo opravili primerjavo kazalnikov ogljične intenzivnosti z nekaterimi IKT podjetji v Evropi. Rezultat dela je prikaz korakov pri določevanju ogljičnega odtisa ter sam izračun. Izračun ogljičnega odtisa je pokazal, da v vseh treh poslovnih letih prispeva največ emisij TGP raba električne energije. Prevozi zaposlenih v službo in nazaj, uporaba lastnih avtomobilov podjetja za transport ter ogrevanje prostorov predstavljajo naslednje večje povzročitelje emisij TGP. Razveseljivo pa je dejstvo, da smo ugotovili negativen trend oz. zmanjševanje količin emisij TGP v poslovnih letih. V pričujoči raziskavi gre za poskus postavitve modela za določevanje ogljičnega odtisa. Na izračunan ogljični odtis vplivajo predpostavke in omejitve v modelu. Zaradi tega so lahko končni rezultati ogljičnega odtisa iz tega vidika pogojno veljavni. Količine emisij TGP običajno dobijo dodatni pomen za podjetje, če postane to zanj neposreden strošek. Emisije TGP v večini primerov za gospodarstvo še vedno pomenijo eksternalije ali negativne zunanje posledice, ki se jih še ne plačuje v takšni meri, kot bi bilo potrebno. Eno izmed možnosti za boj proti podnebnim spremembam predstavlja koncept določevanja t.im. cene ogljika (angl. carbon price). Cena ogljika je znesek, ki mora biti plačan za izpust vsake tone CO2-ekv v ozračje. Tako s pojmom stroški ogljika (angl. carbon cost) obravnavamo stroške emisij TGP, kar predstavlja vrednotenje emisij TGP v finančnem smislu. Številna podjetja, ki pričakujejo prihodnjo regulacijo emisij TGP, že vključujejo stroške ogljika v procese odločanja s pomočjo notranje, interne ali senčne cene ogljika. To daje slutiti, da se podjetja že pripravljajo na svet z omejitvami in cenami za emisije TGP. Zato izpostavljamo uporabo interne cene ogljika ter izračun stroškov ogljika v podjetništvu kot proaktiven pristop k obvladovanju stroškov. Finančno razsežnot emisij TGP prikazujemo z izračunom stroškov ogljika.
Keywords: emisije TGP, ogljični odtis, IKT panoga, GHG Protocol, interna cena ogljika, stroški ogljika.
Published in DKUM: 09.09.2016; Views: 2238; Downloads: 382
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The Internet of Things Communication Protocol for Devices with Low Memory Footprint
Sašo Vinkovič, Milan Ojsteršek, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes a new communication protocol named XMC which is designed for the transmission of messages between an embedded device and a remote system. A new markup language called XMDD has also been developed and is used to describe the functional profile of the embedded device. The main advantage of the XMC communication protocol is its flexibility and independence from the device type. It is suitable for communication with devices that have a curtailed amount of working memory (a few kB) and limited computing power, i.e. 8-bit or 16-bit microcontrollers. Messaging between the embedded device and the remote systems is done without any interference with the basic source code of the embedded device, thus allowing access to all functionalities and features of the connectable embedded device and is based on the functionality dictionary and built-in features of an embedded device. It also maintains a low production price for the embedded device and from the programming point of view provides a transparent and flexible upgrade of the hardware and software without any redundancy input.
Keywords: communication protocol, internet of things, home automation, functional profile, smart appliance, code generation, embedded system, framework
Published in DKUM: 21.12.2014; Views: 2527; Downloads: 114
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Damjan Vantur, 2013, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V diplomskem delu obravnavamo povezljivost platforme Android z zunanjimi napravami. Natančno bomo spoznali možnosti komunikacije med posameznimi načini povezav – vmesnikov, kot so USB, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi in NFC, ter to podprli s primeri izvorne kode, pripravljene za izvajanje na platformi Android. Predstavili in praktično izvedli bomo komunikacijo med prototipnim vezjem Arduino in platformo Android s pomočjo vmesnika Bluetooth. V ta namen bomo implementirali preprosti protokol komunikacije na nivoju vhodnih in izhodnih tokov za prenos sporočil med napravama. Varnost parametrov – ukazov –, ki jih vezje izvede, bo kodirana z MD5. Vezje bo krmililo lestenec za spreminjanje barv svetilk. Barvo bo določil algoritem povprečne barve na mobilni napravi, napisan v jeziku C++, ki se izvaja kot native izvorna koda na platformi Android. Za zajemanje in računanje povprečne barve matrike nam bo v pomoč odprta knjižnica OpenCV.
Keywords: Android, Arduino, zunanje naprave, mobilne aplikacije, USB, NFC, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, elektronsko prototipno vezje, Android Open Accessory Development Kit, ADK, NDK, Android Accessory Protocol
Published in DKUM: 27.02.2013; Views: 2023; Downloads: 262
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Improvement of the Peyravian-Jeffries`s user authentication protocol and password change protocol
Marko Hölbl, Tatjana Welzer-Družovec, Boštjan Brumen, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: Remote authentication of users supported by passwords is a broadly adopted method of authentication within insecure network environments. Such protocols typically rely on pre-established secure cryptographic keys or public key infrastructure. Recently, Peyravian and Jeffries [M. Peyravian, C. Jeffries, Secure remote user access over insecure networks, Computer Communications 29 (5-6) (2006) 660-667] proposed a protocol for secure remote user access over insecure networks. Shortly after the protocol was published Shim [K.A. Shim, Security flaws of remote user access over insecure networks, Computer Communications 30 (1) (2006) 117-121] and Munilla et al. [J. Munilla, A. Peinado, Off-line password-guessing attack to Peyravian-Jeffries`s remote user authentication protocol, Computer Communications 30 (1) (2006) 52-54] independently presented an off-line guessing attack on the protocol. Based on their findings we present an improved secure password-based protocol for remote user authentication, password change, and session key establishment over insecure networks, which is immune against the attack.
Keywords: networks, user authentication, remote user access, password-based protocol, security
Published in DKUM: 31.05.2012; Views: 2023; Downloads: 80
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