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1.
Resveratrol food supplement products and the challenges of accurate label information to ensure food safety for consumers
Maja Bensa, Irena Vovk, Vesna Glavnik, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The food supplement market is growing as many consumers wish to complement their nutrient intake. Despite all the regulations in place to ensure food supplements safety, there are still many cases of irregularities reported especially connected to internet sales. Twenty resveratrol food supplement products sold on the Slovenian market were evaluated on their compliance of declared vs. determined resveratrol content, as well as the compliance of labels with the European Union (EU) and Slovenian regulatory requirements. Both the ingredient contents and food information are important parts of food safety. Analyses of 20 food supplements performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometry showed that 95% of products had contents different from what was declared and 55% of products contained higher contents than declared. In 25% of the products the determined content per unit exceeded the maximum level (150 mg/day) specified in EU novel food conditions for food supplement with trans-resveratrol. Evaluation of the 20 food supplement labels included mandatory and voluntary food information, food supplement information, novel food information, health claims and nutrition claims. Most labels contained the necessary information, but multiple errors were observed ranging from typos to misleading practices. From a food safety perspective there is still a lot of improvement needed in the field of food supplements.
Keywords: trans-resveratrol, dietary supplements, food safety, regulation, labels, health claims, nutrition claims, novel foods, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 105; Downloads: 6
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The safety of patient management in family medicine in Slovenia during Covid-19 : a crosssectional study
Maja Cvetko Gomezelj, Špela Miroševič, Alina Verdnik Tajki, Ksenija Tušek-Bunc, Esther Van Poel, Sara Willems, Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Abstract Background During the Covid-19 pandemic, family medicine practices (FMPs) changed to improve safety against new coronavirus infections for both patients and employees. Protocols for treating patients with suspected Sars-Cov-2 infections were established to protect medical staf and other patients from being infected. However, these protocols also led to increased safety risks, such as delays in treating patients with other medical conditions. This exploratory study aimed to investigate safety risks in treating patients in FMPs during the Covid-19 pandemic and to suggest improvements to prevent Covid-19 in FMPs in Slovenia. Methods A cross-sectional study was rolled out in FMPs in Slovenia as part of the international Pricov-19 study. Data collection on safety management during the Covid-19 pandemic in FMPs in Slovenia took place from November 2020 until January 2021 using a self-administered online survey for FP working in Slovenia. A chi-square test, ANOVA, independent samples t-test or bivariate correlation test was performed to explore associations regarding the safety of patients’ management variables. Results From the 191 participating family physicians (FPs) (15.2% response rate), 54.8% reported having treated patients with fever (not Covid-19) late due to the new protocols at least once, and 54.8% reported patients with urgent conditions having been seen late at least once due to not coming. In the suburbs and rural environments FPs more often reported that at least once patient with a fever (not Covid-19) was seen late due to the protocol (p=0.017) and more often reported that at least once patient with an urgent condition was seen late due to not com‑ ing to their FP (p=0.017). The larger the practice, the more they reported that at least once a patient with fever (not Covid-19) was seen late due to the protocol (p=0.012) and the more they reported at least once a patient with an urgent condition was seen late due to not coming to their FP (p=0.012). Conclusion Covid-19 afected the safety of patient management in FMP in Slovenia. The most common prob‑ lem was foregone care. Therefor, protocols for chronic patient management in the event of epidemics need to be established.
Keywords: Covid-19, family medicine, patient safety, patient management, quality of care, PRICOV-19, primary health care, general practice, timeliness
Published in DKUM: 29.03.2024; Views: 115; Downloads: 8
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4.
Safety culture in the operating room : translation, validation of the safety attitudes questionnaire - operating room version
Teodor Pevec, Tit Albreht, Eva Turk, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Measuring the safety culture in Healthcare is an important step in improving patient safety. One of the most commonly used instruments to measure the safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The aim of the current study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Slovenian version of the SAQ for the operating room SAQ-OR. Methods: The SAQ, consisting of six dimensions, was translated and adapted to the Slovenian context and applied in operating rooms from seven out of ten Slovenian regional hospitals. Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results: The sample consisted of 243 health care professionals who hold positions in the OR, divided into 4 distinct professional classes, namely, 76 surgeons (31%), 15 anesthesiologists (6%), 140 nurses (58%) and 12 auxiliary persons (5%). It was observed a very good Cronbach's alpha (0.77 to 0.88). The CFA and its goodness-of-fit indices (CFI 0.912, TLI 0.900, RMSE 0.056, SRMR 0.056) showed an acceptable model fit. There are 28 items in the final model. Conclusions: The Slovenian version of the SAQ-OR revealed good psychometric properties for studying the organisational safety culture.
Keywords: operating room, safety attitudes questionnare, safety culture, translation
Published in DKUM: 13.03.2024; Views: 200; Downloads: 9
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Food risk analysis : Towards a better understanding of “hazard” and “risk” in EU food legislation
Ana-Andreea Cioca, Livija Tušar, Tomaž Langerholc, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: For risk communication, it is important to understand the difference between “hazard” and “risk”. Definitions can be found in Codex Alimentarius and the European Union (EU) General Food Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002. The use of these terms as synonyms or their interchange is a recurrent issue in the area of food safety, despite awareness-raising messages sent by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and other interested entities. A quick screening of the EU’s food regulations revealed several inconsistencies. Hence, it was considered necessary to further investigate if regulations could act as a source for this problem. A software tool was developed to support the detection and listing of inconsistent translations of “hazard” and “risk” in certain EU food regulations. Subsequently, native-speaking experts working in food safety from each EU country were asked to provide their individual scientific opinion on the prepared list. All data were statistically analysed after applying numerical scores (1–5) describing different levels of consistency. Results showed that the most common problem was the interchange of “hazard” with “risk” and vice versa. This lack of consistency can create confusion that can further translate into misjudgments at food risk assessment and communication levels.
Keywords: risk analysis, risk communication, hazard, risk, food regulation, food safety
Published in DKUM: 12.03.2024; Views: 323; Downloads: 338
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6.
Visiting nuclear reactors : safety and security aspects
Barbara Pavlakovič Farrell, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Visiting nuclear reactors is a niche tourism offer within energy (industrial) tourism, which leads tourists through areas that are not primarily meant for them. Hence, safety and security issues are even more critical in this case. This study aims to highlight different aspects of safety and security issues in nuclear power plant tours and to present measures taken to address these concerns. In addition, we studied the connection between plant visits and the public image of nuclear energy. Information was gathered through participant observation (personal visits of factory tours) and an online survey. There, we identified safety and security nuclear power plant visit protocols and a positive correlation between the visit variable and the two variables of the public image of nuclear energy, which suggests energy (industrial) tourism as a suitable tool to enhance awareness and knowledge about nuclear energy.
Keywords: Nuclear power plants, Energy (industrial) tourism, Safety, Security, Risk, Participant observation
Published in DKUM: 17.01.2024; Views: 175; Downloads: 9
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7.
Work of Ljubljana’s Municipal Warden Service – from repression to prevention and collaboration
Tinkara Bulovec, Roman Fortuna, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: This article highlights the work of Ljubljana’s Municipal Warden Service (MWS), emphasizing the application of criminological knowledge in both preventive and repressive efforts. Design/Methods/Approach: We performed both qualitative and quantitative analyses using data from the SUDMR and PowerBI apps, employed by municipal wardens to track preventive actions and map repressive measures. Findings: In recent years, there has been a significant increase in both repressive and preventive actions of municipal wardens, with 115,453 measures implemented and 2,752 hours allocated to preventive work in 2022. The majority of repressive measures targeted road-related offenses. Community-oriented work and engagement were prioritized, especially in the densely populated city centre, focusing on road traffic and vulnerable road users. Integrating the apps used by MWS with criminological knowledge supports future planning, implementation, and justification of measures, as well as urban planning. Besides, mutual cooperation and exchange of information between MWS and other stakeholders are key to comprehensive security provision in the local environment. Research Limitations/Implications: A key limitation is that we only analysed repressive and preventive measures conducted by the MWS Ljubljana in 2022. Practical Implications: Applying criminological findings to municipal warden work is effective. Utilizing hot spot displays supports informed decision-making and preventive strategies. In instances where general prevention methods and misdemeanour procedures prove ineffective in ensuring public safety and preventing violations, particularly findings from the field of prevention, community policing and plural policing, can be useful. Originality/Value: This study is pioneering with a unique approach, utilizing new methodologies and perspectives to explain and validate the work of municipal wardens.
Keywords: Municipal Warden Service, City of Ljubljana, criminological findings, prevention, repression, local safety and security
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2024; Views: 156; Downloads: 8
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8.
The impact of financial and non-financial work incentives on the safety behavior of heavy truck drivers
Sebastjan Škerlič, Vanja Erčulj, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The goal of the research is to determine how compensation affects the safety behavior of truck drivers and consequently the frequency of traffic accidents. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on a sample of 220 truck drivers in international road transport in the EU, where the results of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) show that in the current state of the transport sector, financial and non-financial incentives have a positive impact on the work and safety behavior of drivers. Financial incentives also have an impact on drivers’ increased perception of their driving ability, while moving violations continue to have a major impact on the number of accidents. The proposed improvements enable decision-makers at the highest level to adopt legal solutions to help manage the issues that have been affecting the industry from a work, social and safety point of view for the past several years. The results of the research therefore represent an important guideline for improvements to the legislature as well as in the systematization of truck driver compensation within companies.
Keywords: safety, truck drivers, financial incentives, non-financial incentives, compensation
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2023; Views: 383; Downloads: 20
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9.
The psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of the medical office survey on patient safety culture
Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Irena Makivić, Tonka Poplas-Susič, 2020, original scientific article

Keywords: patient safety, primary care, validation studies
Published in DKUM: 23.01.2023; Views: 463; Downloads: 9
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10.
Development of a methodology to calibrate a pedestrian microsimulation model : doctoral dissertation
Chiara Gruden, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Walking, as a mode of transport, is becoming widespread, in a world, where urban conglomerates are broadening and becoming denser. Modern lifestyle trends on a side, and eco-friendly policies on the other, push people into walking habits, increasing the need for a suitable, attractive, accessible, connected and safe walking infrastructure. To reach such a result, it is necessary to understand, what are the needs of the users of this infrastructure, taking into consideration the behavioral specificities and the safety needs of pedestrians. In this process pedestrian microsimulation models, surrogate safety techniques, and technologies able to measure specific traits of pedestrian dynamics play a central role. The firsts allow to reproduce repeatedly in a virtual environment a specific infrastructure and to study the response of pedestrians. Nevertheless, to be accurate and efficient, they need to go through long and tedious calibration and validation processes, that are often seen as an important limitation by technicians. Surrogate safety techniques are methods, that are based on the concept, that it is possible to predict the safety level of a location, using near accidents. The main advantage of such techniques is that they are proactive. Till this moment, these techniques have been mainly applied to on-field measurements and are primarily centered on motorized road users. Less interest has been shown for vulnerable road users, especially for pedestrians, who have been less extensively studied. Finally, an element that could highly affect pedestrian safety is their reaction time. Nevertheless, its measurement has long been a big issue. Eye-tracking technology could be one of the solutions, allowing to analyze the directions and objects fixated by pedestrians. These listed issues are also the topics that are addressed by this research work. Focusing on the study of the action of pedestrians while crossing the road on an unsignalized crosswalk set on a roundabout entry leg, the dissertation thesis aims at studying the crossing time, reaction time and surrogate safety aspects typical of pedestrians at the recalled location. The main purpose of the research work is to develop a methodology to calibrate pedestrian Social Force Model at a selected location, using a specifically formulated neural network as a tool to fine-tune model's behavioral parameters. Eight parameters have been chosen to be fine-tuned, five of those are related to pedestrian behavior and three of them are related to car-following behavior. After the selection of input parameters, a feedforward network has been formulated. Its application in the framework of the whole calibration process has brought to considerably positive results, finding a combination of input parameters that improved the performance of the microsimulation model of 37 % in comparison to the default one. The outputs of the calibrated model have been used to calculate three measures of surrogate safety, and also in this case results demonstrated an improvement in the calculation of surrogate safety measures when using the calibrated outcomes in comparison to their calculation on the “default” model outputs. Finally, reaction time measurement and prediction have been addressed by the thesis, in order to be able to describe pedestrian crossing action in its completeness. Quantitative eye-tracking outputs have been the starting point for the calculation of pedestrian reaction time at different locations, and they allowed to create a database of behavioral, geometric, regulatory and flow characteristics, which was the foundation for the formulation of a new prediction model for pedestrian reaction time. The prediction model, which consists of a cascade-correlation neural network, gave a good response to the learning and generalization steps, turning a 74 % correlation between the measured reaction time values and the predicted ones, and being able to follow the variability of these values.
Keywords: pedestrian, microsimulation model, calibration, neural network, surrogate safety indicators, reaction time.
Published in DKUM: 03.10.2022; Views: 756; Downloads: 96
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