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Antibacterial effect of topically administered tranexamic acid in large joint arthroplasty
Urban Slokar, Simon Kovač, Andrej Cör, Katja Šuster, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine and is commonly used as an antifibrinolytic agent in large joint surgery, such as knee arthroplasty, to minimize blood loss and its associated complications. Some studies have suggested that perioperative intravenous TXA application lowers the incidence of postoperative infections after hip and knee arthroplasty. While its effects on bacteria are not its primary purpose, more research is needed further to elucidate the extent of TXA’s impact on bacterial inhibition and its clinical relevance. In order to determine possible inhibitory effects, 22 clinically relevant bacterial strains were exposed to different TXA concentrations. Two different assays were performed: a microdilution assay with traditional endpoint measurements and a kinetic growth assay for a time-dependent susceptibility assessment. With the microdilution technique, a growth inhibitory effect became evident at higher TXA concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) on eight tested bacterial strains, of which four demonstrated absence of growth at 100 mg/mL, suggesting minimal inhibitory concentration. However, the kinetic growth assay revealed more specific TXA-induced dynamic changes in the bacterial growth of all tested bacterial strains. This study showed that TXA affects the growth dynamics of bacteria by altering their lag phase duration, exponential growth rate, and population density and may contribute to the prevention of implant-associated infections.
Keywords: tranexamic acid, bacterial growth, antimicrobial effect, topical administration, arthroplasty
Published in DKUM: 19.04.2024; Views: 52; Downloads: 0
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Enhancing the performance of high-growth small- and medium-sized enterprises through effective project- management processes and stakeholder engagement : a systems perspective
Igor Vrečko, Polona Tominc, Karin Širec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This study examines the impact of project management practices on high-growth Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (HG SMEs) from a systems perspective, utilizing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and data from a diverse SME sample. It investigates the intricate relationships among project management system support, project management processes, stakeholder involvement, project management success, project success, and HG SME growth. Our findings highlight the substantial positive influence of project management processes and stakeholder engagement on project management success. These factors subsequently contribute significantly to both project success and the overall growth of HG SMEs. Notably, project management system support does not exhibit a substantial influence on these success factors. Furthermore, our research uncovers important indirect effects. Project management processes indirectly impact both project success and HG SME growth, underscoring their central role. Similarly, stakeholder involvement indirectly influences HG SME growth through its impact on project success, emphasizing its significance. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by emphasizing the critical roles of project management processes, stakeholder engagement, and project success as drivers of SME growth. These insights have valuable implications for SME managers, project leaders, and policymakers, highlighting the essential nature of effective project management in shaping the growth trajectory of SMEs.
Keywords: project management, project success, SME growth, stakeholder engagement, projectmanagement processes, high-growth SMEs, systems perspective, SEM
Published in DKUM: 13.12.2023; Views: 331; Downloads: 12
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Exposure to Cattle Slurry of Different Concentrations Influence Germination and Initial Growth of Selected Grass and Legume Species
Anastazija Gselman, Vilma Sem, Silva Grobelnik Mlakar, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: In addition to improving soil quality, the fertilisation of grassland with cattle slurry is often associated with seed dispersal. Most studies focus on the effects of cattle slurry on the germination and early development of weed species, but less is known about how slurry affects the germination process of grasses and forage legumes. The aim of Experiment I of our study was therefore to investigate the influence of soaking time in cattle slurry of different concentrations on Lolium multiflorum, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens. Seeds were soaked in undiluted (100%) and diluted cattle slurries (50% and 25%) for 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days. Experiment II was conducted to study the initial growth of studied plants from seeds soaked in cattle slurry of different concentrations for 14 days. After the germination test, which was carried out under controlled conditions, the germination index (GI) was calculated. The results (Experiment I) show that a short soaking in cattle slurry (14 days) has no negative effect on the germination process for all species. However, a longer soaking resulted in significantly reduced and delayed germination, especially in undiluted slurry for grasses and diluted slurries for clovers. The slurry concentration (Experiment II) only influenced the root growth of L. multiflorum. Seedlings grown from seeds soaked in undiluted slurry had a 17% higher relative root length than the control and developed significantly longer root systems than the other two slurry concentrations.
Keywords: cattle slurry, soaking time, seed germination, initial plant growth, Lollium multiflorum, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens
Published in DKUM: 08.12.2023; Views: 319; Downloads: 16
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Influence of microdefect on fatigue properties in weld fine grain heat affected zone on nickel molybdenum alloy steel : doctoral disertation
Fidan Smaili, 2023, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: This research presents two possibilities to prepare and test the Fine Grain of a Heat Affected Zone, which, practically, could be considered as the weakest part of welded joints in the presence of any microdefect. It is a narrow zone located between the fusion zone and the unaffected base material; therefore, only a few methods are suitable to test its mechanical properties. The 18CrNiMo7-6 steel was used as the base material. As this steel is usually used for the production of dynamically loaded components, testing of its fatigue behaviour and fracture toughness was crucial, but also measurement of its hardness and impact toughness. To investigate the mechanical properties of a Fine-Grain Heat-Affected Zone (FG HAZ), two different methods for simulation of as-welded microstructures were used in this research: A weld thermal cycle simulator (WTCS) and austenitising in a laboratory furnace +
Keywords: weld joint, Fine Grain Heat Affected Zone, mechanical properties, fatigue crack growth
Published in DKUM: 06.10.2023; Views: 319; Downloads: 32
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The benefits, costs and feasibility of a low incidence COVID-19 strategy
Thomas Czypionka, Emil Nafis Iftekhar, Barbara Prainsack, Viola Priesemann, Simon Bauer, André Calero Valdez, Sarah Cuschieri, Enrico Glaab, Eva Grill, Jenny Krutzinna, Christos Lionis, Helena Machado, Carlos Martins, George N Pavlakis, Matjaž Perc, Elena Petelos, Martyn Pickersgill, Alexander Skupin, Eva S. Schernhammer, Ewa Szczurek, Sotirios Tsiodras, Peter Willeit, Paul Wilmes, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: In the summer of 2021, European governments removed most NPIs after experiencing prolonged second and third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most countries failed to achieve immunization rates high enough to avoid resurgence of the virus. Public health strategies for autumn and winter 2021 have ranged from countries aiming at low incidence by re-introducing NPIs to accepting high incidence levels. However, such high incidence strategies almost certainly lead to the very consequences that they seek to avoid: restrictions that harm people and economies. At high incidence, the important pandemic containment measure ‘test-trace-isolate-support’ becomes inefficient. At that point, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its numerous harmful consequences can likely only be controlled through restrictions. We argue that all European countries need to pursue a low incidence strategy in a coordinated manner. Such an endeavour can only be successful if it is built on open communication and trust.
Keywords: disease dynamics, exponential growth, virality, strategy
Published in DKUM: 25.09.2023; Views: 468; Downloads: 36
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Fine-tuning cardiac insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling to promote health and longevity
Mahmoud Abdellatif, Viktoria Herbst, Alexander Martin Heberle, Alina Humnig, Tobias Pendl, Sylvère Durand, Giulia Cerrato, Sebastian J Hofer, Moydul Islam, Julia Voglhuber, Simon Sedej, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and aging. Although its inhibition promotes longevity across species, the effect of attenuated IGF1 signaling on cardiac aging remains controversial. Methods: We performed a lifelong study to assess cardiac health and lifespan in 2 cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic mouse models with enhanced versus reduced IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling. Male mice with human IGF1R overexpression or dominant negative phosphoinositide 3-kinase mutation were examined at different life stages by echocardiography, invasive hemodynamics, and treadmill coupled to indirect calorimetry. In vitro assays included cardiac histology, mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, autophagic flux, and targeted metabolome profiling, and immunoblots of key IGF1R downstream targets in mouse and human explanted failing and nonfailing hearts, as well. Results: Young mice with increased IGF1R signaling exhibited superior cardiac function that progressively declined with aging in an accelerated fashion compared with wild-type animals, resulting in heart failure and a reduced lifespan. In contrast, mice with low cardiac IGF1R signaling exhibited inferior cardiac function early in life, but superior cardiac performance during aging, and increased maximum lifespan, as well. Mechanistically, the late-life detrimental effects of IGF1R activation correlated with suppressed autophagic flux and impaired oxidative phosphorylation in the heart. Low IGF1R activity consistently improved myocardial bioenergetics and function of the aging heart in an autophagy-dependent manner. In humans, failing hearts, but not those with compensated hypertrophy, displayed exaggerated IGF1R expression and signaling activity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the relationship between IGF1R signaling and cardiac health is not linear, but rather biphasic. Hence, pharmacological inhibitors of the IGF1 pathway, albeit unsuitable for young individuals, might be worth considering in older adults.
Keywords: aging, autophagy, cardiomyopathies, insulin-like growth factor 1, mitochondria, mouse, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases
Published in DKUM: 11.08.2023; Views: 384; Downloads: 33
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A framework for multi-objective optimization of virtual tree pruning based on growth simulation
Damjan Strnad, Štefan Kohek, Bedrich Benes, Simon Kolmanič, Borut Žalik, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We present a framework for multi-objective optimization of fruit tree pruning within a simulated environment, where pruning is performed on a virtual tree model, and its effects on tree growth are observed. The proposed framework uses quantitative measures to express the short-term and long-term effects of pruning, for which potentially conflicting optimization objectives can be defined. The short-term objectives are evaluated on the pruned tree model directly, while the values of long-term objectives are estimated by executing a tree growth simulation. We demonstrate the concept by using a bi-objective case, where the estimated light interceptions of the pruned tree in the current and the next season are used to define separate optimization objectives. We compare the performance of the multi-objective simulated annealing and the NSGA-II method in building the sets of non-dominated pruning solutions. The obtained Pareto front approximations correspond to diverse pruning solutions that balance between optimizing either objective to different extents, which indicates a potential for new applications of the multi-objective pruning optimization concept.
Keywords: virtual tree pruning, multi-objective oiptimization, growth simulation, simulated annealing, NSGA-II
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2023; Views: 304; Downloads: 37
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FDI and economic growth : a new look from the sectoral perspective
Vladimir Šimić, Lena Malešević-Perović, 2022, original scientific article

Keywords: FDI, economic growth, sectoral data, manufacturing
Published in DKUM: 19.06.2023; Views: 361; Downloads: 3
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Reviewing the narrative concerning the impact of population growth in Africa
Cocou Marius Mensah, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: This article discusses the topic of population growth in Africa, a recurring theme in the era of climate change and the fight against CO2 emissions. The African continent is full of essential raw materials and encompasses the youngest population in the world. There is no doubt concerning the significant role it will play in global affairs, at a time when the world population is ageing, according to the UN statistics. In recent years, many policymakers have highlighted the necessity to deal with overpopulation, provoking moral controversial and basic human rights abuses. This article, however, proposes an opposite argumentation based on fresh data and emphasises the opportunities and challenges to take on, as the author considers "overpopulation" as more of a challenge than a sentence to underdevelopment. Though the paper mentions different issues linked to overpopulation, such as migration crisis, ecological sustainability and the UN Sustainable Development Goals, it concludes with a reminder of the importance of international cooperation as a solution to global issues.
Keywords: global issues, impact of population growth, migration trends, international cooperation, pollution, African Union, European Union, UN sustainable development goals, environmental footprint
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2021; Views: 726; Downloads: 15
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All together to fight COVID-19
Sara Momtazmanesh, Hans D. Ochs, Lucina Q. Uddin, Matjaž Perc, John M. Routes, Duarte Nuno Vieira, Waleed Al-Herz, Safa Baris, Carolina Prando, Laszlo Rosivall, Amir Hamzah Abdul Latiff, Timo Ulrichs, Vasili Roudenok, Juan Carlos Aldave Becerra, Deepak B. Salunke, Ekaterini Goudouris, Antonio Condino-Neto, Anzhela Stashchak, Oleksandr Kryvenko, Mykola Stashchak, Anastasia Bondarenko, Nima Rezaei, 2020, polemic, discussion, commentary

Abstract: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), named a pandemic by the WHO, is the current global health crisis. National and international collaboration are indispensable for combating COVID-19 and other similar potential outbreaks. International efforts to tackle this complex problem have led to remarkable scientific advances. Yet, as a global society, we can and must take additional measures to fight this pandemic. Undoubtedly, our approach toward COVID-19 was not perfect, and testing has not been deployed fast enough to arrest the epidemic early on. It is critical that we revise our approaches to be more prepared for pandemics as a united body by promoting global cooperation and commitment.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, pandemic, disease dynamics, exponential growth, virality
Published in DKUM: 12.11.2020; Views: 1342; Downloads: 201
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