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1.
High strain rate hardening of metallic cellular metamaterials
Nejc Novak, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Strain rate hardening caused by the changed deformation mode is a fascinating phenomenon in cellular metamaterials where the material’s stiffness and energy absorption capabilities increase as the strain rate increases. This unique behaviour is attributed to a combination of micro-inertia effects, base material’s strain rate hardening and inertia effects. At high strain rates, the metamaterial’s inertia influences its deformation response, which changes to shock mode. This work briefly presents the geometry and fabrication of different metallic metamaterials. Then, it evaluates their mechanical response at different strain rates, ranging from quasi-static to intermediate dynamic and shock, determined by experimental and computational investigation. The three deformation modes can be separated into two critical loading velocities, unique for each metamaterial, which are also presented and compared in this work for various metamaterials. The investigations show that the deformation mode change in metallic metamaterials depends on their porosity. The critical velocities separating the deformation modes decrease with increasing porosity, i.e., decreased density of the metamaterial results in reduced critical loading velocities. The shock deformation mode in cellular metamaterials is thus attainable at much lower loading velocities than in homogeneous (nonporous) materials.
Keywords: metamaterials, cellular structures, high strain rate, experimental testing, computational modelling, compression loading, mechanical properties
Published in DKUM: 22.05.2024; Views: 121; Downloads: 5
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2.
High strain-rate deformation analysis of open-cell aluminium foam
Anja Mauko, Mustafa Sarıkaya, Mustafa Güden, Isabel Duarte, Matej Borovinšek, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: This study investigated the high-strain rate mechanical properties of open-cell aluminium foam M-pore®. While previous research has examined the response of this type of foam under quasi-static and transitional dynamic loading conditions, there is a lack of knowledge about its behaviour under higher strain rates (transitional and shock loading regimes). To address this gap in understanding, cylindrical open-cell foam specimens were tested using a modified Direct Impact Hopkinson Bar (DIHB) apparatus over a wide range of strain rates, up to 93 m/s. The results showed a strong dependency of the foam's behaviour on the loading rate, with increased plateau stress and changes in deformation front formation and propagation at higher strain rates. The internal structure of the specimens was examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography (mCT). The mCT images were used to build simplified 3D numerical models of analysed aluminium foam specimens that were used in computational simulations of their behaviour under all experimentally tested loading regimes using LS-DYNA software. The overall agreement between the experimental and computational results was good enough to validate the built numerical models capable of correctly simulating the mechanical response of analysed aluminium foam at different loading rates.
Keywords: Open-cell aluminium foam, Micro-computed tomography, High-strain rate, Direct impact hopkinson bar, Digital image correlation, Computer simulation
Published in DKUM: 06.12.2023; Views: 362; Downloads: 28
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3.
Inter-person differences in isometric coactivations of triceps surae and tibialis anterior decrease in young, but not in older adults after 14 days of bed rest
Matjaž Divjak, Gašper Sedej, Nina Murks, Mitja Gerževič, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Aleš Holobar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: We examined activation patterns of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), soleus (SO), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in eight older (58.4 ± 3.3 years) and seven young (23.1 ± 2.9 years) participants, before and after 14 days of horizontal bed rest. Visual feedback on the exerted muscle torque was provided to the participants. The discharge patterns of individual motor units (MUs) were studied in three repetitions of isometric plantar flexion at 30 and 60% of Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC), before, and 1 day after the 14-day bed rest, respectively. In the GL and GM muscles, the older participants demonstrated higher MU discharge rates than the young, regardless of the contraction level, both before and after the bed rest. In the TA and SO muscles, the differences between the older and young participants were less consistent. Detailed analysis revealed person-specific changes in the MU discharge rates after the bed rest. To quantify the coactivation patterns we calculated the correlation coefficients between the cumulative spike trains of identified MUs from each muscle, and measured the root mean square difference of the correlation coefficients between the trials of the same session (intra-session variability) and between different sessions (inter-session variability) in each participant (intra-person comparison) and across participants (inter-person comparison). In the intra-person comparison, the inter-session variability was higher than the intra-session variability, either before or after the bed rest. At 60% MVC torque, the young demonstrated higher inter-person variability of coactivation than the older participants, but this variability decreased significantly after the bed rest. In older participants, inter-person variability was consistently lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque. In young participants, inter-person variability became lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque only after the bed rest. Precaution is required when analyzing the MU discharge and coactivation patterns, as individual persons demonstrate individual adaptations to aging or bed rest.
Keywords: mišičnoskeletni sistem, mišice, bed rest, staranje, elektromiografija, high density electromyography, muscle disuse, motor units, discharge rate, aging
Published in DKUM: 07.07.2023; Views: 464; Downloads: 46
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4.
Validation test plan for relays in avtomotive industry
Urban Cotič, 2017, master's thesis

Abstract: The master’s thesis discusses different approaches how to assure the quality and reliability of high voltage contactors in automotive industry. In the beginning, the history of the development is described, followed by basic knowledge about materials and magnetic theory used in relays. The main part of the thesis is tests defying to qualify the relays for usage in automotive industry. There are different tests, divided in different groups. Second important part is reliability prediction according to standards used in this area of business. Reliability prediction and calculation of failure rate on different contactors are described in last chapters. Calculation also included influence of different factors on life span of the parts. In conclusion, the results are commented and proposal for development is given based on results of the research.
Keywords: Automotive industry, high voltage contactors, testing, reliability, failure rate
Published in DKUM: 07.02.2018; Views: 1504; Downloads: 121
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5.
Dynamic property of aluminium foam
Seiichi Irie, Toshihiko Okano, Shigeru Tanaka, Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren, Kazuyuki Hokamoto, Shigeru Itoh, 2010, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: aluminium foam, powder gun, high strain rate
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1654; Downloads: 48
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6.
Vloga in nastanek mikrostrukturnih sestavin M-A v zvarnih spojih maloogljičnih visokotrdnostnih konstrukcijskih jekel
Zdravko Praunseis, Masao Toyoda, Alojz Križman, Mitsuru Ohata, 2001, review article

Abstract: The existence of martensite-austenite constituents in the weld metal and heat-affected zone seriously reduces the fracture toughness of the welded joint. Therefore, we have investigated the formation of the martensite-austenite constituents when high-strength low-alloy steel is welded with a high heat input or using multi-pass welding. This paper deals with the effects of martensite-austenite constituents on the fracture toughness, the metallurgical features of the martensite-austenite constituents, and the prevention and elimination of the martensite-austenite constituents in the welded joints.
Keywords: arc welding, high-strength low-alloy steels, microstructure, martensite-austenite constituents, weld metal, heat-affected zone, cooling rate
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 2118; Downloads: 125
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7.
Separation of parthenolide from feverfew: performance of conventional and high-pressure extraction techniques
Lucija Čretnik, Mojca Škerget, Željko Knez, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: In present work the extraction of feverfew flower heads was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures from 200 to 800 bar and at temperatures of 40, 60 and 80 °C. For comparison, the conventional extractionswith organic solvents have been performed. Dry feverfew flower heads were used as starting material. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) wasperformed using a semi continuous flow apparatus in a laboratory and pilot scale. The influence of process parameters on the total yield and amount of parthenolide isolated was investigated. Dynamic behaviour of the extraction runs followed by single-step separation was analysed by a mathematical model for initial constant rate extraction period and the subsequent time-dependant diffusion controlling mass transfer rate period. In order to concentrate the obtained extract in parthenolide, a two-step separation was employed.
Keywords: chemical processing, high pressure extraction, conventional extraction, supercritical CO2, parthenolide, feverfew, extraction rate, mass transfer
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 2051; Downloads: 107
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