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Optimization of chaboche material parameters with a genetic algorithm
Nejc Dvoršek, Iztok Stopeinig, Simon Klančnik, 2023, original scientific article

Keywords: Chaboche material model, parameter optimization, genetic algorithm, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 04.04.2024; Views: 103; Downloads: 8
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Numerical analysis of a transtibial prosthesis socket using 3D-Printed Bio-Based PLA
Vasja Plesec, Jani Humar, Polona Dobnik-Dubrovski, Gregor Harih, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Lower-limb prosthesis design and manufacturing still rely mostly on the workshop process of trial-and-error using expensive unrecyclable composite materials, resulting in time-consuming, material-wasting, and, ultimately, expensive prostheses. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of utilizing Fused Deposition Modeling 3D-printing technology with inexpensive bio-based and bio-degradable Polylactic Acid (PLA) material for prosthesis socket development and manufacturing. The safety and stability of the proposed 3D-printed PLA socket were analyzed using a recently developed generic transtibial numeric model, with boundary conditions of donning and newly developed realistic gait cycle phases of a heel strike and forefoot loading according to ISO 10328. The material properties of the 3D-printed PLA were determined using uniaxial tensile and compression tests on transverse and longitudinal samples. Numerical simulations with all boundary conditions were performed for the 3D-printed PLA and traditional polystyrene check and definitive composite socket. The results showed that the 3D-printed PLA socket withstands the occurring von-Mises stresses of 5.4 MPa and 10.8 MPa under heel strike and push-off gait conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum deformations observed in the 3D-printed PLA socket of 0.74 mm and 2.66 mm were similar to the check socket deformations of 0.67 mm and 2.52 mm during heel strike and push-off, respectively, hence providing the same stability for the amputees. We have shown that an inexpensive, bio-based, and bio-degradable PLA material can be considered for manufacturing the lower-limb prosthesis, resulting in an environmentally friendly and inexpensive solution.
Keywords: 3D printing, bio-based, polylactic acid, PLA, prosthesis, prosthesis socket, numerical model, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 14.03.2024; Views: 149; Downloads: 24
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Static bending analysis of a transversely cracked strip tapered footing on a two-parameter soil using a new beam finite element
Denis Imamović, Matjaž Skrinar, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper, a new beam Euler–Bernoulli finite element for the transverse static bending analysis of cracked slender strip tapered footings on an elastic two-parameter soil is presented. Standard Hermitian cubic interpolation functions are selected to derive the closed-form expressions of complete stiffness matrix and the load vector. The efficiency of the proposed finite element is verified on an example with several width tapering variations of a simple cracked footing with the results of governing differential equation. Another novelty of this study is improved bending moment functions with included discontinuity conditions at the crack location. These functions now accurately describe the bending moments in the vicinity of the crack of the finite element.
Keywords: transverse displacements analysis, cracked tapered beam, discrete spring model, static analysis, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 28.02.2024; Views: 219; Downloads: 15
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Computer modelling of the residual limb for the development of prosthetic sockets and liners with the cellular structure : doctoral disertation
Vasja Plesec, 2023, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The production of lower limb prostheses continues to rely primarily on manual methods, which are outdated and characterized by labour-intensive processes, lengthy time requirements, high costs, and a heavy reliance on the expertise of prosthetists. Achieving a satisfactory fit between the residual limb and socket remains a challenge, often leading to discomfort, pain, and potential wearer tissue damage. However, advancements in computer technology and numerical simulation offer an opportunity to predict stresses and strains experienced by the residual limb during prosthesis usage. This, in turn, aids in the development process by enhancing the design of the prosthetic socket and liner through virtual environments. In this dissertation we developed a generic numerical transtibial model to bridge the gap between clinical practice and numerical simulations. Biomechanically validated, this model generates outcomes applicable to a broader amputee population, facilitating comparative analysis of socket and liner designs and materials under different loading conditions. Furthermore, the dissertation explores the utilization of a 3D-printed socket manufactured through the cost-effective fused filament fabrication process, using polylactic acid filament, aiming to reduce the costs and establish a streamlined production process. The 3D-printed socket was evaluated within the virtual environment using the developed transtibial model. The numerical findings indicate that the 3D-printed socket can effectively withstand the loads encountered during the stages of prosthesis donning, single-leg stance, heel strike, and push-off, thereby presenting a viable alternative to the prevalent composite socket. Additionally, a cellular structure composed of a flexible thermoplastic elastomeric material is proposed as a prosthetic liner to enhance comfort by reducing contact pressure while maintaining the required stability. Numerical results indicate that by manipulating cellular parameters such as unit cell type and relative density of the structure, a customized response can be achieved. This customized response effectively reduces contact pressure for a given scenario without increasing displacement, thereby improving comfort while maintaining stability.
Keywords: lower-limb prosthesis, generic numerical transtibial model, 3D-printed socket, cellular structure liner, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2023; Views: 610; Downloads: 40
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Optimizacija Chaboche materialnih parametrov z genetskim algoritmom : magistrsko delo
Nejc Dvoršek, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: The basis of this thesis is research and development of a genetic algorithm for material parameters optimization. It is written in collaboration with AVL, which already has a solution for this problem, but is looking into better alternatives. Chaboche material model is a nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening model which can describe elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations. Parameters of such complex nature do not have a physical interpretation in the real-world and must be defined with inverse analysis. Genetic algorithms (GA) are a promising tool to help with such tasks. They have been widely used and recognized for various optimization problems. Material data available are low cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and tensile experiments. For each experiment a corresponding finite element model in Abaqus is prepared. Comparing experimental and simulation data is the objective function GA will try to minimize. For this reason, a corresponding fitness function was developed to score each individual. It makes use of similarity measure algorithm proposed in this paper [10]. GA was implemented in Python with Pygad library. Instead of bits, genes are represented with real-valued numbers with defined limits. Performance of developed GA was tested based on various population sizes, mutation probabilities, and crossover operators. The main parameter that impacts algorithms performance is population size. Paired with right mutation probability the algorithm can find a global minimum of described optimization problem. Making it a viable alternative to existing approach used at AVL.
Keywords: Chaboche material model, parameter optimization, genetic algorithm, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 16.12.2022; Views: 779; Downloads: 0
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Comparison and implementation of thermo-mechanical fatigue damage models : magistrsko delo
Jure Vinkovič, 2021, master's thesis

Abstract: The basis of the master thesis is an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the scientific literature on damage models of thermo-mechanical fatigue. The aim of the thesis is to investigate and determine the suitability of damage models for their application in numerical simulations of components subjected to thermo-mechanical loading with in-phase, out-of-phase or constant temperature cycles. The theoretical background of material behavior under static and dynamic loads (e.g. low-cycle fatigue, high-cycle fatigue) is presented. The work also includes an overview of damage mechanisms typical of time-temperature varying loading conditions (e.g. cyclic softening and hardening of the material, mean stress relaxation, material creep, visco-plasticity, etc.). This is followed by a structured review of several damage models of thermo-mechanical fatigue (e.g. Neu-Sehitoglu, DTMF, Coffin-Manson, Ostergren, Smith-Watson-Topper, Unified Energy Approach, etc.). An overview of the experimental tests on aluminum alloy and cast iron carried out at temperatures up to 800 °C is given. The idea of processing the raw experimental data including the calibration procedure of the thermo-mechanical fatigue damage models is schematically illustrated and described. The basic mathematical laws of constitutive material models for both material types are given. In the conclusion of the MSc thesis, the correlations of the calibrated damage models are presented, which, together with the constructive opinions, give an important message on the application of the individual damage models depending on the type of material and the loading method.
Keywords: thermo-mechanical fatigue, constitutive material model, damage model, aluminum alloy, cast iron alloy, finite element method
Published in DKUM: 03.01.2022; Views: 933; Downloads: 0

Comparison of different stator topologies for BLDC drives : master's thesis
Mitja Garmut, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: The focus of this Master's thesis was to increase the output-power density of a fractional-horsepower BLDC drive. Different stator segmentation topologies were analyzed and evaluated for this purpose. The presented analysis was performed by using various models with different complexity levels, where a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model and a 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM) model combined with a power-loss model, were applied systematically. Characteristic behavior of the BLDC drive was obtained in this way. The models were validated with measurement results obtained on an experimental test drive system. The influence of the weakening of the magnetic flux density and flux linkage, due to segmentation were analyzed based on the validated models. Furthermore, the increase of the thermal-stable output power and efficiency was rated, due to the consequently higher slot fill factor. Lastly, a detailed iron-loss analysis was performed for different stator topologies. The performed analysis showed that segmentation of the stator can enable a significant increase of the output power of the discussed BLDC drives, where the positive effects of segmentation outweigh the negative ones from the electromagnetic point of view. Segmentation, however, also impacts other domains, such as Mechanical and Thermal, which was out of the scope of this thesis, and will be performed in the future.
Keywords: fractional-horsepower BLDC drive, stator segmentation, fill factor increase, thermal-stable output power, Finite Element Method model
Published in DKUM: 17.11.2020; Views: 1304; Downloads: 26
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Experimental and numerical studies of T-shaped footings
Nihat Kaya, Murat Ornek, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: In addition to vertical axial loads, the footings of structures are often subjected to eccentric loads caused by the forces of earth pressures, earthquakes, water, wind, etc. Due to eccentric loading, the two edges settle by different amounts, causing the footing to tilt and then the pressure below the footing does not remain uniform. The T-shape is proposed as a footing shape for improving the bearing capacity of shallow footings against the action of eccentric loads. The vertical insertion of the rigid T-shaped footing, into the bearing soil, provides considerable resistance, against both of sliding and overturning, enough to regain the reduction in bearing capacity and increase in settlement. In this study, a series of experimental and numerical results from the ultimate loads and settlement of T-shaped footings are reported. A total of 48 model tests were conducted for investigating the effects of different parameters, such as the problem geometry and soil density. The problem geometry was represented by two parameters, the load eccentricity (e) and the insertion depth (H) of the T-shape into the loose and dense sand soil. After the experimental stage, the numerical analyses were carried out using a plane strain, two-dimensional, finite-element-based computer program. The behaviour of the T-shape footing on sand beds is represented by the hardening soil model. The results of the experimental and numerical studies proved that the ultimate bearing capacity of a footing under eccentric loads could be improved by inserting a vertical central cut-off rigidly connected to the footing bottom. The load settlement curves indicate that the higher load eccentricity results in a decrease in the bearing capacity of the strip footing. It was also proved that the ultimate bearing capacity values can, depending on the soil density, be improved by up to four times that of the loose sand case. This investigation is considered to have provided a useful basis for further research, leading to an increased understanding of the T-shaped footing design.
Keywords: model test, finite-element method, T-shaped footing, eccentric loading, sand
Published in DKUM: 14.06.2018; Views: 1208; Downloads: 54
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New finite element for transversely cracked slender beams subjected to transverse loads
Matjaž Skrinar, Tomaž Pliberšek, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper covers the derivation of a new finite element for beams with transverse cracks. The derivation is based on a simplified computational model that has already proved itself suitable for the inverse identification of cracks. The model embodies all the necessary major information about the structure's response from the inverse identification point of view, where the presence and location and, if possible, the depth of the crack should be detected from the measured response, usually dynamic. In such situations the stress distributions obtained from 2D finite elements analysis are not as important as the computational model being capable of reliably describing the displacement of the structure. However, from numerical studies it also became evident that the relevance of the model decreases with element thickness. This indicated that shear forces should be included in the analysis process. Therefore, derivation of a new finite element with the inclusion of shear forces effect has been executed. The stiffness matrix for transversely cracked slender beams, as well as the derivation of interpolation functions is presented and all expressions are given in symbolic forms. The example shows that, although with significantly less computational effort than with 2D FE meshes, significant improvement in transverse displacements can be obtained with the presented beam finite element.
Keywords: beams, transverse cracks, computational model, finite element method, transverse displacements
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 2364; Downloads: 109
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