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11.
Early spread of COVID-19 in Romania: imported cases from Italy and human-to-human transmission networks
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Jürgen Lerner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We describe the early spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the first human-to-human transmission networks, in Romania. We profiled the first 147 cases referring to sex, age, place of residence, probable country of infection, return day to Romania, COVID-19 confirmation date and the probable modes of COVID-19 transmissions. Also, we analysed human-to-human transmission networks and explored their structural features and time dynamics. In Romania, local cycles of transmission were preceded by imported cases, predominantly from Italy. We observed an average of 4.8 days (s.d. = 4.0) between the arrival to a Romanian county and COVID-19 confirmation. Furthermore, among the first 147 COVID-19 patients, 88 were imported cases (64 carriers from Italy), 54 were domestic cases, while for five cases the source of infection was unknown. The early human-to-human transmission networks illustrated a limited geographical dispersion, the presence of super-spreaders and the risk of COVID-19 nosocomial infections. COVID-19 occurred in Romania through case importation from Italy. The largest share of the Romanian diaspora is concentrated especially in the northern parts of Italy, heavily affected by COVID-19. Human mobility (including migration) accounts for the COVID-19 transmission and it should be given consideration while tailoring prevention measures.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, transmission networks, human mobility, migration, nosocomial infections
Published: 16.12.2020; Views: 113; Downloads: 46
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12.
Ensemble Docking Coupled to Linear Interaction Energy Calculations for Identification of Coronavirus Main Protease (3CLpro) Non-Covalent Small-Molecule Inhibitors
Marko Jukič, Dušanka Janežič, Urban Bren, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: SARS-CoV-2, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, represents a new strain of Coronaviridae. In the closing 2019 to early 2020 months, the virus caused a global pandemic of COVID-19 disease. We performed a virtual screening study in order to identify potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main viral protease (3CLpro or Mpro). For this purpose, we developed a novel approach using ensemble docking high-throughput virtual screening directly coupled with subsequent Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) calculations to maximize the conformational space sampling and to assess the binding affinity of identified inhibitors. A large database of small commercial compounds was prepared, and top-scoring hits were identified with two compounds singled out, namely 1-[(R)-2-(1,3-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)-1-ethanone and [({(S)-1-[(1H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl}methyl)amino](5-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)formaldehyde. Moreover, we obtained a favorable binding free energy of the identified compounds, and using contact analysis we confirmed their stable binding modes in the 3CLpro active site. These compounds will facilitate further 3CLpro inhibitor design.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Mpro, 3CLpro, 3C-like protease, virtual screening, inhibitors, in silico drug design, free-energy calculations
Published: 10.12.2020; Views: 233; Downloads: 49
.pdf Full text (2,99 MB)

13.
Sprememba poslovnih procesov v podjetju Grama d. o. o. v letu 2020
Jan Hribernik, 2020, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V diplomskem projektu sem predstavil spremembe poslovnih procesov v podjetju Grama v letu 2020. Lotili so se prenove glede modernizacije, vendar je imel največji vpliv na spremembe v podjetju pojav virusa COVID-19. Kot težavo bi tako izpostavil nekoliko zastarele procese, ki so bili časovno potratni, in vpliv virusa COVID-19 na te procese, predvsem glede upoštevanja varnostnih ukrepov, ki so bili nujni predvsem za varnost zaposlenih. Cilj diplomske naloge je bil opredelitev poslovnih procesov pred virusom in po njem oziroma opredelitev poslovnih procesov po uvedbi sprememb, nastalih zaradi pojava virusa COVID-19. Naloga obravnava spremenjene procese in druge spremembe, ki so jim bili priča v podjetju med letom 2020. Vpliv virusa je procese spreminjal in oteževal razvoj, podjetje pa je v tem obdobju delovalo pod posebnimi pogoji, ki bodo opisani v nalogi. Spremembe sem opisal in analiziral ter zarisal procese. Podjetje je vpliv virusa začutilo na različnih področjih. Predstavil sem tri, na katere je bil vpliv največji. Vplivi so se med seboj razlikovali in prinesli različne posledice. Grama je doživela velike zaostanke in izpade dohodka zaradi virusa in tako leta 2020 niso napredovali. Opazil sem tudi nepripravljenost na letošnje dogodke, ki so podjetje presenetili. Pripravljenost je bila torej slaba in se mora v prihodnosti izboljšati, verjamem pa, da je podjetje trenutno bolje pripravljeno na nepredvidljive dogodke in se je zaradi omenjene krize marsikaj naučilo.
Keywords: poslovni procesi, spremembe, COVID-19, nabava, proizvodnja, prodaja.
Published: 30.11.2020; Views: 175; Downloads: 49
.pdf Full text (2,09 MB)

14.
Planiranje razvoja podjetja fa-dental d.o.o.
Ven Florjančič, 2020, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Spremembe v poslovnem svetu postajajo že skoraj vsakodnevna stalnica. Zaradi sprememb v življenjskem slogu končnih potrošnikov je ključno hitro sprejemanje vizije podjetja. Da bi se podjetje uspešno razvijalo, mora biti vodstvo podjetja pripravljeno pravočasno zaznati spremembe in nato ukrepati. Cilje vsakega podjetja, kot so obstoj in razvoj, doseganje poslovne uspešnosti, ohranjanje konkurenčnega položaja in zadovoljstvo vseh udeležencev podjetja, pa lahko podjetje uresniči le s pravilno planiranim in usmerjenim razvojem. V diplomskem delu bomo preučevali planiranje razvoja podjetja Fa-dental d. o. o., ki se ukvarja z zobozdravstvenimi storitvami. Najprej bomo podali teoretična izhodišča različnih avtorjev, ki jih bomo kasneje uporabili pri planiranju razvoja proučevanega podjetja. Osrednja tema diplomskega projekta je pripraviti vizijo in cilje za podjetje Fa-dental d. o. o. in ga finančno ovrednotiti. Pri pisanju diplomskega projekta bomo eno poglavje namenili vplivu covid-19 krize in morebitnih makroekonomskih posledic krize, ki bi lahko vplivale na podjetje.
Keywords: razvoj podjetja, vpliv covid-19 krize, vizija, politika podjetja, širitev podjetja
Published: 24.11.2020; Views: 150; Downloads: 33
.pdf Full text (390,93 KB)

15.
Supplementary material for paper Perceived threat of COVID-19 and future travel avoidance
Maja Turnšek, Boštjan Brumen, Marjetka Rangus, Mitja Gorenak, Janez Mekinc, Tanja Lešnik Štuhec, 2020, complete scientific database or corpus

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, tourism, health threat perception, future travel avoidance, fear appeals
Published: 23.11.2020; Views: 14822; Downloads: 282
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16.
COVID.si - Skupnostna znanost za boj proti korona virusu
Črtomir Podlipnik, Marko Jukič, Natalia Nikitina, Sebastian Pleško, Lorenzo Gilardoni, Gašper Tomšič, Žan Pevec, Boštjan Laba, 2020, complete scientific database or corpus

Abstract: Projekt “SKUPNOSTNA ZNANOST IN BOJ PROTI KORONA VIRUSU” je odprt projekt skupnosti dobromislečih raziskovalcev in prostovoljcev, ki želijo s svojim delom, znanjem in izkušnjami, prispevati kamenček v mozaiku poznavanja novega korona virusa in bolezni COVID-19, ki jo ta virus povzroča. Skupino vodita strokovnjaka dr. Črtomir Podlipnik in dr. Marko Jukić, z dolgoletnimi izkušnjami s področja računalniško podprtega načrtovanja molekul, farmacevtske kemije in kemo/bioinformatike. S somišljeniki ter prostovoljci so v zelo kratkem času razvili lastno tehnologijo, ki omogoča porazdeljeno računanje molekulskega sidranja. Tehnologija je osnovana na programčku, ki omogoča povezavo uporabnikovega računalnika s strežnikom, ki porazdeli del knjižnice molekul pripravljenih za molekulsko sidranje (trenutno 10 000 000 spojin). Po končanem sidranju (s programom RxDock), programček pošlje izračunane podatke nazaj na zbirno mesto na strežniku. Po analizi sidranih spojin je končni rezultat seznam molekul s potencialno vezavo na terapevtsko tarčo (v našem primeru so to virusni proteini). Nato lahko preverimo ali so te spojine dobavljive in organiziramo biološko testiranje v sodelovanju z ostalimi raziskovalnimi skupinami. Podatke o nedobavljivih spojinah lahko v nasprotnem primeru posredujemo raziskovalnim skupinam za izvedbo sinteze. V optimalnem scenariju bi lahko identificirali spojine zanimive za farmacevtsko industrijo. Rešitev, ki temelji na porazdeljenem računanju je osnovana na odprtokodnih rešitvah.
Keywords: COVID-19, virus CoV SARS-2, ligandi, proteini, virusna biokemija, računalniško podprto načrtovanje molekul, molekulsko sidranje, porazdeljeno računanje
Published: 22.11.2020; Views: 219; Downloads: 32
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17.
Supplementary material for paper City size and the spreading of COVID-19 in Brazil
Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Andre S. Sunahara, Jack Sutton, Matjaž Perc, Quentin S. Hanley, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The current outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented example of how fast an infectious disease can spread around the globe (especially in urban areas) and the enormous impact it causes on public health and socio-economic activities. Despite the recent surge of investigations about different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, we still know little about the effects of city size on the propagation of this disease in urban areas. Here we investigate how the number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 scale with the population of Brazilian cities. Our results indicate small towns are proportionally more affected by COVID-19 during the initial spread of the disease, such that the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths per capita initially decrease with population size. However, during the long-term course of the pandemic, this urban advantage vanishes and large cities start to exhibit higher incidence of cases and deaths, such that every 1% rise in population is associated with a 0.14% increase in the number of fatalities per capita after about four months since the first two daily deaths. We argue that these patterns may be related to the existence of proportionally more health infrastructure in the largest cities and a lower proportion of older adults in large urban areas. We also find the initial growth rate of cases and deaths to be higher in large cities; however, these growth rates tend to decrease in large cities and to increase in small ones over time.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, scaling, city size, epidemic, prediction
Published: 19.11.2020; Views: 198; Downloads: 65
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18.
19.
Could sex/gender differences in ACE2 expression in the lungs contribute to the large gender disparity in the morbidity and mortality of patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus?
Gregor Majdič, 2020, short scientific article

Abstract: COVID-19 morbidity and mortality have significant gender disparities, with higher prevalence and mortality in men. SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs through the ACE2 enzyme, a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Although there are no data for the lung, the expressions of RAS components in other tissues are modulated by sex hormones, androgens, and estrogens. However, there are no data on sex-specific differences in ACE2 expression. If there is a sex difference in the expression of ACE2 in the lung, this could theoretically explain the gender disparity in COVID-19 disease. More importantly, although modulation of ACE2 will certainly not provide a cure for the COVID-19 disease, modulation of ACE2 by sex hormone modulators, if they affect the expression of ACE2, could potentially be developed into a supportive therapy for COVID-19 patients.
Keywords: lung, ACE2, COVID-19, coronavirus, sex difference, androgens
Published: 12.11.2020; Views: 108; Downloads: 98
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20.
Perceived threat of COVID-19 and future travel avoidance
Maja Turnšek, Boštjan Brumen, Marjetka Rangus, Mitja Gorenak, Janez Mekinc, Tanja Lešnik Štuhec, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The present study provides a snapshot of Slovenian tourists' perceptions in a historically unique point of time - the early days of the covid-19-related lockdown. Based on an online survey performed in March and April 2020 the study provides first insights into Slovenian tourists% perceived threats of covid-19 on two dimensions: severity and susceptibility; how this depends on their demography and past travel experience and what, in this specific point in time, they think about future travel avoidance. The results have shown that age affects the two measured dimensions of perceived threat and future travel avoidance, but only with women. Furthermore, people who have travelled the most in the past express the least likelihood of avoidance to travel due to the covid -19 pandemic. Those who are more educated, on the other hand, perceive higher risk, yet education has no role in their expressed future travel avoidance. The results, moreover, show that the moral obligation towards taking care of others might be a highly important element in the success factor of covid-19 measures and thus future appeals by the tourism industry. Finally, the results show that we cannot easily predict how the general population will behave regarding their future travel avoidance since the opinions are not polarised in the extremes. This does indicate, however, that tourists will be susceptible to the context-specific factors of future travel decisions, such as assurances of health safety provided by the tourism industry.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, tourism, health threat perception, future travel avoidance, fear appeals
Published: 12.11.2020; Views: 237; Downloads: 84
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