Standard of control under Article 8 ARSIWALeon Brulc
, 2019, master's thesis
Abstract: State responsibility is considered an essential part of international law, since the whole body of international law would in essence be deemed ineffective if the States were not held liable for their conduct. States are the principal bearers of international obligations because of their legal personality. As a consequence, the fact that States have certain obligations, means that responsibility is heavily interlinked with the notion of sovereignty and vice versa. Similarly to individuals, sovereignty of States is limited with the rights of other States. However, this does not mean that State responsibility is an abandonment of State’s sovereignty, but rather its attribute.
A State cannot act on its own. It can only conduct its operations through its organs and through private actors. While the conduct of an organ of a State might automatically be attributed to that State, the attributability of a private actor’s conduct appears to be more problematic. One of the grounds of attribution of a private actor’s conduct is found in Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA). Under Article 8 of the ARSIWA, private actor’s conduct is attributable to a State if that State instructs a private actor or if it controls or directs it. When it comes to the attribution on the grounds of control, the case law and theory, as to the degree of control required to trigger State responsibility, are at odds. While part of the theory defends the test adopted by the International Court of Justice (the effective control test), other academics defend the test proposed by International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (the overall control test). This clash is the focal point of the thesis.
While both of these tests were developed in a (para)military context, the question arises whether they can be applied to private corporations, and if the answer is yes, to what extent. In addition to proposing an appropriate test for corporations, this thesis also tries to find the appropriate test for (para)military group and determine whether there should be only one test for attribution or if there ought to be multiple.
Keywords: State responsibility, Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, Article 8, Attributability, Control, Tadić case, Military activities in Nicaragua case, Bosnian genocide case, effective control test, overall control test
Published: 27.06.2019; Views: 252; Downloads: 93
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