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1.
Highly divergent Clostridium difficile strains isolated from the environment
Sandra Janežič, Mojca Potočnik, Valerija Tkalec, Maja Rupnik, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Clostridium difficile is one of the most important human and animal pathogens. However, the bacterium is ubiquitous and can be isolated from various sources. Here we report the prevalence and characterization of C. difficile in less studied environmental samples, puddle water (n = 104) and soil (n = 79). C. difficile was detected in 14.4% of puddle water and in 36.7% of soil samples. Environmental strains displayed antimicrobial resistance patterns comparable to already published data of human and animal isolates. A total of 480 isolates were grouped into 34 different PCR ribotypes. More than half of these (52.9%; 18 of 34) were already described in humans or animals. However, 14 PCR ribotypes were new in our PCR ribotype library and all but one were non-toxigenic. The multilocus sequence analysis of these new PCR ribotypes revealed that non-toxigenic environmental isolates are phylogenetically distinct and belong to three highly divergent clades, two of which have not been described before. Our data suggest that environment is a potential reservoir of genetically diverse population of C. difficile.
Keywords: clostridium difficile, environment, isolation
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 403; Downloads: 222
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2.
Clostridium difficile genotypes other than ribotype 078 that are prevalent among human, animals and environmental isolates
Sandra Janežič, Matjaž Ocepek, Valerija Tkalec, Maja Rupnik, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Characterising the overlap of C. difficile genotypes in different reservoirs can improve our understanding of possible transmission routes of this pathogen. Most of the studies have focused on a comparison of the PCR ribotype 078 isolated from humans and animals. Here we describe for the first time a comparison of C. difficile genotypes isolated during longer time intervals from different sources including humans, animals and the non-hospital environment. Results: Altogether 786 isolates from time interval 2008-2010 were grouped into 90 PCR ribotypes and eleven of them were shared among all host types and the environment. Ribotypes that were most common in humans were also present in water and different animals (014/020, 002, 029). Interestingly, non-toxigenic isolates were very common in the environment (30.8%) in comparison to humans (6.5%) and animals (7.7%). A high degree of similarity was observed for human and animal isolates with PFGE. In human isolates resistance to erithromycin, clindamycin and moxifloxacin was detected, while all animal isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Conclusion: Our results show that many other types in addition to PCR Ribotype 078 are shared between humans and animals and that the most prevalent genotypes in humans have the ability to survive also in the environment and several animal hosts. The genetic relatedness observed with PFGE suggests that transmission of given genotype from one reservoir to the other is likely to occur.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile, genotypes, PCR ribotype 078, isolates
Published: 29.06.2017; Views: 298; Downloads: 50
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3.
International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains
Sandra Janežič, Valerija Tkalec, Bart Pardon, Alexander Indra, Branko Kokotovic, Jose Luis Blanco, Christian Seyboldt, Rodriguez Diaz, Ian Poxton, Vincent Perreten, Ilenia Drigo, Alena Jiraskova, Matjaž Ocepek, Scott Weese, Glenn Songer, Mark Wilcox, Maja Rupnik, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates as well as in terms of number of different host species: 078 (14.3% of isolates; 4 hosts), 014/020 (11.6%; 8 hosts); 002 (5.4%; 4 hosts) and 012 (5.4%; 5 hosts). Two animal hosts were best represented; cattle with 31 isolates (20 PCR ribotypes; 7 countries) and pigs with 31 isolates (16 PCR ribotypes; 10 countries). Conclusions: This results show that although PCR ribotype 078 is often reported as the major animal C. difficile type, especially in pigs, the variability of strains in pigs and other animal hosts is substantial. Most common human PCR ribotypes (014/020 and 002) are also among most prevalent animal associated C. difficile strains worldwide. The widespread dissemination of toxigenic C. difficile and the considerable overlap in strain distribution between species furthers concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of this critically important pathogen.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile, animals, ribotyping, geographic distribution, strain collection
Published: 29.06.2017; Views: 431; Downloads: 228
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