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Work of Ljubljana’s Municipal Warden Service – from repression to prevention and collaboration
Tinkara Bulovec, Roman Fortuna, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: This article highlights the work of Ljubljana’s Municipal Warden Service (MWS), emphasizing the application of criminological knowledge in both preventive and repressive efforts. Design/Methods/Approach: We performed both qualitative and quantitative analyses using data from the SUDMR and PowerBI apps, employed by municipal wardens to track preventive actions and map repressive measures. Findings: In recent years, there has been a significant increase in both repressive and preventive actions of municipal wardens, with 115,453 measures implemented and 2,752 hours allocated to preventive work in 2022. The majority of repressive measures targeted road-related offenses. Community-oriented work and engagement were prioritized, especially in the densely populated city centre, focusing on road traffic and vulnerable road users. Integrating the apps used by MWS with criminological knowledge supports future planning, implementation, and justification of measures, as well as urban planning. Besides, mutual cooperation and exchange of information between MWS and other stakeholders are key to comprehensive security provision in the local environment. Research Limitations/Implications: A key limitation is that we only analysed repressive and preventive measures conducted by the MWS Ljubljana in 2022. Practical Implications: Applying criminological findings to municipal warden work is effective. Utilizing hot spot displays supports informed decision-making and preventive strategies. In instances where general prevention methods and misdemeanour procedures prove ineffective in ensuring public safety and preventing violations, particularly findings from the field of prevention, community policing and plural policing, can be useful. Originality/Value: This study is pioneering with a unique approach, utilizing new methodologies and perspectives to explain and validate the work of municipal wardens.
Keywords: Municipal Warden Service, City of Ljubljana, criminological findings, prevention, repression, local safety and security
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2024; Views: 225; Downloads: 8
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The policing perspective of personal data protection and the right to be forgotten in Europe and in the Republic of Slovenia
Miha Dvojmoč, Tinkara Bulovec, Katja Eman, 2023, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The article raises the question, whether the data protection regulation in police procedures is sufficient and whether it does not ‘harm’ the person subject to the procedure. Design/Methods/Approach: The impact, advantages and disadvantages of legislative changes on implementing specific police tasks (e.g. biometric data, facial recognition systems and automatic identification of vehicle registration plates) are presented, emphasising regulation in the Republic of Slovenia as a systematic literature review. Findings: The latest changes in personal data protection were related to the definition, collection, processing, use, transmission and storage of personal data. An individual has rights relating to access to information, processing, correction, restrictions on use, transferability, deletion and objection to the processing of personal data. When police operate within the law, their powers must align with constitutional and legal provisions. This alignment safeguards interventions in individual privacy. Yet, without legal clarity, known as lex certa, there’s a risk of actions becoming unwarranted intrusions into rights and freedoms. A consensus is needed between the protection of individual privacy and enabling the effective investigation and control of crime by law enforcement authorities. Research Limitation/Implications: The research was focus only on data protection regulation in police procedures. Practical Implication: The findings of the article offer insight into data protection regulation in police procedures and highlights the gaps and formulate starting points for future research. Originality/Value: The article is the first systematic literature review in data protection in police procedures in Slovenia.
Keywords: protection of personal data, GDPR, police procedures, right to be forgotten, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 15.01.2024; Views: 217; Downloads: 9
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Nightlife entertainment spots in cities as a potential criminogenic focus of sexual harassment
Tinkara Bulovec, Katja Eman, 2020, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the issue of sexual harassment, with a focus on nightlife entertainment areas in cities. It also presents the theoretical background, manifestation, and comprehensiveness of the phenomenon, as well as the victimological perspectives and some criminological interpretations. Design/Methods/Approach: A review of literature related to sexual harassment was conducted for the purpose of this paper, after which the method of deduction was applied to draw general findings with respect to the nightlife entertainment areas in cities. Findings: When reviewing the issue, it was found that the critical element for identifying diverse verbal, non-verbal and physical acts as sexual harassment stems from the fact that these acts are unsolicited and unwanted by the harassed individual. Sexual harassment occurs in all areas of human participation, either as part of domestic violence, in the workplace, in the context of education or in public places, where the nightlife (entertainment) areas in cities remain rather under-researched. The criminogenic potential of nightlife areas arises from, inter alia, the presence of alcohol and drugs in these areas, which contributes to the emergence of various types of deviant behaviours, including sexual harassment. Studies conducted abroad reveal that street harassment and stranger harassment represent an issue occurring in public places that, firstly, are not explicitly legally restricted. Secondly, they represent a form of sexual harassment, which is challenging to prove. Originality/Value: The paper focuses on providing an insight into the issue of sexual harassment in nightlife entertainment areas, which was deemed essential in terms of setting potential starting points for further discussion and research. Due to the theoretical nature of the paper, the findings can be used as a base for the empirical study of sexual harassment in nightlife entertainment spots in Slovenia.
Keywords: sexual violence, sexual harassment, street/stranger harassment, nightlife entertainment spots, urban areas
Published in DKUM: 04.01.2021; Views: 901; Downloads: 49
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Časopisno poročanje o otroški srčni kirurgiji - zlata kriminalistična vprašanja kot analitični okvir
Tinkara Bulovec, Danijela Frangež, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Namen prispevka: Namen prispevka je predstaviti način novinarskega poročanja o otroški srčni kirurgiji ter ugotoviti, ali lahko z analiziranimi časopisnimi članki odgovorimo na zlata kriminalistična vprašanja. Metode: Prispevek temelji na kvalitativni in kvantitativni analizi časopisnih člankov otroške srčne kirurgije, ki so bili v obdobju 2012–2016 objavljeni v Dnevniku, Delu, Večeru, Financah in Slovenskih novicah. Zlata kriminalistična vprašanja smo uporabili kot metodo za prepoznavanje nekaterih kriminalističnih vidikov v časopisnih člankih o otroški srčni kirurgiji. Ugotovitve: Prispevek predstavlja poskus uporabe zlatih kriminalističnih vprašanj kot metodo za prepoznavanje nekaterih kriminalističnih vidikov v časopisnih člankih o otroški srčni kirurgiji v Sloveniji. Ugotovili smo, da z analiziranimi časopisnimi članki lahko odgovorimo na vsa zlata kriminalistična vprašanja, razen na vprašanje »s čim«, kar lahko pojasnimo s tem, da zaradi narave očitanih kaznivih dejanj (malomarno zdravljenje, zdravniške napake, korupcija) sredstva storitve niso v ospredju. Kljub temu je metoda po našem mnenju uporabna le delno in z zadržkom. Z njo ne moremo pridobiti podrobnejših informacij o preiskovanju in dokazovanju domnevnih kaznivih dejanj. Prav tako je pri uporabi odgovorov na zlata kriminalistična vprašanja potrebna previdnost, saj z njimi pridobimo vpogled v vsebino novic, ki jih mediji objavljajo, ne pa tudi verodostojnih odgovorov na posamezno vprašanje. Časopisni članki so namreč pogosto napisani senzacionalistično in temeljijo na nepreverjenih dejstvih ter virih. Omejitve raziskave Omejitev raziskave predstavljajo predvsem senzacionalistično napisani časopisni članki kot tudi manko verodostojnih informacij o preiskovanju in dokazovanju domnevnih kaznivih dejanj v primerih otroške srčne kirurgije. Praktična uporabnost: Ugotovitve raziskave omogočajo vpogled v način in vsebino poročanja časopisov o otroški srčni kirurgiji. Izvirnost/pomembnost prispevka: Ugotovitve prispevka so uporabne za vse, ki jih ta tematika zanima.
Keywords: otroška srčna kirurgija, zdravstvene napake, malomarno zdravljenje, zlata kriminalistična vprašanja, analiza časopisnih člankov
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2020; Views: 1494; Downloads: 145
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Samomori z ostrim in/ali koničastim predmetom v osrednji, zahodni in jugovzhodni Sloveniji : magistrsko delo
Tinkara Bulovec, 2019, master's thesis

Abstract: Preiskovanje sumljive smrti zahteva skrbno, pozorno in individualno obravnavo dogodka ter sodelovanje vseh deležnikov, ki sodelujejo pri ogledu kraja dejanja. Ugotovitve sodnomedicinskega izvedenca o okoliščinah dogodka, tj. o času in načinu smrti, značilnostih poškodb ter morebitnem predmetu storitve, so ključne za usmeritev nadaljnjega kriminalističnega preiskovanja. Trilema, ki se pojavi ob preiskovanju suma nasilne smrti, je, ali okoliščine dogodka kažejo na nesrečo, samomor ali umor, pri čemer moramo biti še posebno pozorni na možnost fingiranja dogodka. V magistrskem delu so predstavljene ugotovitve raziskave okoliščin samomorov z ostrim in/ali koničastim predmetom, ki je bila izvedena na Inštitutu za sodno medicino Medicinske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Za namen raziskave smo pregledali obdukcijska poročila s pripadajočo dokumentacijo v obdobju med letoma 2008 in 2018 ter izmed njih izbrali samomore z ostrim in/ali koničastim predmetom. V analiziranem obdobju je bilo na ISM 111 obravnav (87 moških in 24 žensk), ki so v 49,5 % storili enostavni, v 50,5 % pa kompleksni samomor z ostrim in/ali koničastim predmetom. Pri slednjih je bila najpogostejša kombinacija ostrih poškodb (vreznin ali vbodnin) z obešanjem (45,2 %). Čeprav v vzorčnih podatkih prevladujejo moški, smo hipotezo, da moški pogosteje naredijo samomor z ostrim in/ali koničastim predmetom, na podlagi testa deležev zavrnili. Ugotovili smo, da so poškodbe najpogosteje povzročene z neopredeljenimi ostrimi predmeti (41,2 %), pri natančno opredeljenih predmetih pa so prevladovali kuhinjski noži (17,1 %). Dokazali smo, da so poškodbe najpogosteje na levi polovici telesa, kar potrjuje našo predpostavko, da je ta stran telesa zaradi dominance desne roke bolj dostopna. Najpogosteje so bile poškodbe v predelu podlahti, leve predkomolčne kotanje in levega zapestja. Samomor z ostrim in/ali koničastim predmetom je bil največkrat storjen doma (65,8 %). Umrli zaradi tovrstnega samomora so bili pogosteje pod vplivom psihoaktivnih zdravil kot alkohola.
Keywords: samomori, ostri in koničasti predmeti, poškodbe, vreznine, vbodnine, magistrska dela
Published in DKUM: 18.09.2019; Views: 1144; Downloads: 143
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Kriminalistični vidiki otroške srčne kirurgije - analiza časopisnih člankov : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija
Tinkara Bulovec, 2016, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V zadnjem času smo lahko priča številnim aferam in napakam v zdravstvu. Ena izmed njih je tudi zgodba o otroški srčni kirurgiji, ki je vrhunec medijske pozornosti dosegla po objavi ugotovitev mednarodne komisije za presojo leta 2015. Javnost ima delno pravico do obveščenosti tudi z dogajanjem v zdravstvu. Mediji z objavami zdravniških nepravilnosti pripomorejo k oblikovanju javnega mnenja. Na podlagi analize časopisnih člankov smo ugotovili, da otroci največkrat niso prioriteta v člankih. Več pozornosti se posveča vodstvu in zdravnikom Univerzitetnega kliničnega centra Ljubljana. Prav tako smo v povezavi s slikovnim gradivom ugotovili, da so v člankih najpogosteje slike odgovornih za napake v programu otroške srčne kirurgije, sledijo simbolične slike otrok, bolnišnični posnetki in v zelo majhnem obsegu tudi slike staršev in otrok iz programa otroške kardiokirurgije. V diplomskem delu smo z analizo poročanja medijev poskušali odgovoriti na zlata kriminalistična vprašanja. Ugotovili smo, da so mediji odgovornost za napake v programu otroške srčne kirurgije pripisali otroškim srčnim kirurgom in vodstvu Univerzitetnega kliničnega centra Ljubljana, še preden so bili končani sodni postopki in pravnomočno dokazana krivda. Žrtve so bili otroci, ki so zaradi zdravljenja v programu otroške srčne kirurgije umrli ali utrpeli trajne zdravstvene posledice. Na vprašanje o tem, kaj se je zgodilo, smo na podlagi analize poročanja dobili odgovor, da je šlo za zdravniške napake, malomarno zdravljenje, smrt otrok in trajne zdravstvene posledice zaradi nepravilno izvedenih operativnih posegov in neprimerne pooperacijske obravnave. V povezavi z visokimi plačili otroških srčnih kirurgov in napotitvami otrok na zdravljenje v tujino so mediji izpostavili tudi korupcijo.
Keywords: otroška srčna kirurgija, malomarno zdravljenje, zdravstvene napake, kazenska odgovornost, odškodninski zahtevki, medijsko poročanje, analize, diplomske naloge
Published in DKUM: 16.11.2016; Views: 1700; Downloads: 241
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