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1.
Social reappraisal of emotions is linked with the social presence effect in the default mode network
Xiyao Xie, Teresa Bertram, Saša Zorjan, Marina Horvat, Christian Sorg, Satja Mulej Bratec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Introduction: Social reappraisal, during which one person deliberately tries to regulate another’s emotions, is a powerful cognitive form of social emotion regulation, crucial for both daily life and psychotherapy. The neural underpinnings of social reappraisal include activity in the default mode network (DMN), but it is unclear how social processes influence the DMN and thereby social reappraisal functioning. We tested whether the mere presence of a supportive social regulator had an effect on the DMN during rest, and whether this effect in the DMN was linked with social reappraisal-related neural activations and effectiveness during negative emotions. Methods: A two-part fMRI experiment was performed, with a psychotherapist as the social regulator, involving two resting state (social, non-social) and two task-related (social reappraisal, social no-reappraisal) conditions. Results: The psychotherapist’s presence enhanced intrinsic functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) within the anterior medial DMN, with the effect positively related to participants’ trust in psychotherapists. Secondly, the social presence-induced change in the dACC was related with (a) the social reappraisal-related activation in the bilateral dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporoparietal junction and (b) social reappraisal success, with the latter relationship moderated by trust in psychotherapists. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that a psychotherapist’s supportive presence can change anterior medial DMN’s intrinsic connectivity even in the absence of stimuli and that this DMN change during rest is linked with social reappraisal functioning during negative emotions. Data suggest that trust-dependent social presence effects on DMN states are relevant for social reappraisal—an idea important for daily-life and psychotherapy-related emotion regulation.
Keywords: social reappraisal, social support, social emotion regulation, social presence, default mode network, interpersonal trust, anterior cingulate
Published in DKUM: 18.04.2024; Views: 287; Downloads: 241
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2.
Human threat circuits : threats of pain, aggressive conspecific, and predator elicit distinct BOLD activations in the amygdala and hypothalamus
Teresa Bertram, Daniel Hoffmann Ayala, Eva Maria Huber, Felix Brandl, Georg Starke, Christian Sorg, Satja Mulej Bratec, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Threat processing, enabled by threat circuits, is supported by a remarkably conserved neural architecture across mammals. Threatening stimuli relevant for most species include the threat of being attacked by a predator or an aggressive conspecific and the threat of pain. Extensive studies in rodents have associated the threats of pain, predator attack and aggressive conspecific attack with distinct neural circuits in subregions of the amygdala, the hypothalamus and the periaqueductal gray. Bearing in mind the considerable conservation of both the anatomy of these regions and defensive behaviors across mammalian species, we hypothesized that distinct brain activity corresponding to the threats of pain, predator attack and aggressive conspecific attack would also exist in human subcortical brain regions.
Keywords: human, threat responses, translational neuroscience, threat conditioning, threat types, MRI, threat circuit
Published in DKUM: 12.04.2024; Views: 311; Downloads: 277
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3.
Common and specific large-scale brain changes in major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain : a transdiagnostic multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional MRI studies
Felix Brandl, Benedikt Weise, Satja Mulej Bratec, Nazia Jassim, Daniel Hoffmann Ayala, Teresa Bertram, Markus Ploner, Christian Sorg, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (ANX), and chronic pain (CP) are closely-related disorders with both high degrees of comorbidity among them and shared risk factors. Considering this multi-level overlap, but also the distinct phenotypes of the disorders, we hypothesized both common and disorder-specific changes of large-scale brain systems, which mediate neural mechanisms and impaired behavioral traits, in MDD, ANX, and CP. To identify such common and disorder-specific brain changes, we conducted a transdiagnostic, multimodal meta-analysis of structural and functional MRI-studies investigating changes of gray matter volume (GMV) and intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of large-scale intrinsic brain networks across MDD, ANX, and CP. The study was preregistered at PROSPERO (CRD42019119709). 320 studies comprising 10,931 patients and 11,135 healthy controls were included. Across disorders, common changes focused on GMV-decrease in insular and medial-prefrontal cortices, located mainly within the so-called default-mode and salience networks. Disorder-specific changes comprised hyperconnectivity between defaultmode and frontoparietal networks and hypoconnectivity between limbic and salience networks in MDD; limbic network hyperconnectivity and GMV-decrease in insular and medial-temporal cortices in ANX; and hypoconnectivity between salience and default-mode networks and GMV-increase in medial temporal lobes in CP. Common changes suggested a neural correlate for comorbidity and possibly shared neuro-behavioral chronification mechanisms. Disorder-specific changes might underlie distinct phenotypes and possibly additional disorder-specific mechanisms.
Keywords: human threat behaviour, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic pain, structural MRI, functional MRI
Published in DKUM: 18.08.2023; Views: 360; Downloads: 24
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