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Lipoprotein(a) as a risk factor in a cohort of hospitalised cardiovascular patients : A retrospective clinical routine data analysis
David Šuran, Tadej Završnik, Peter Kokol, Marko Kokol, Andreja Sinkovič, Franjo Naji, Jernej Završnik, Helena Blažun Vošner, Vojko Kanič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a well-recognised risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS). Methods: A retrospective observational study of Lp(a) levels (mg/dL) in patients hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in our clinical routine was performed. The Lp(a)-associated risk of hospitalisation for IHD, AVS, and concomitant IHD/AVS versus other non-ischemic CVDs (oCVD group) was assessed by means of logistic regression. Results: In total of 11,767 adult patients, the association with Lp(a) was strongest in the IHD/AVS group (eβ = 1.010, p < 0.001), followed by the IHD (eβ = 1.008, p < 0.001) and AVS group (eβ = 1.004, p < 0.001). With increasing Lp(a) levels, the risk of IHD hospitalisation was higher compared with oCVD in women across all ages and in men aged ≤75 years. The risk of AVS hospitalisation was higher only in women aged ≤75 years (eβ = 1.010 in age < 60 years, eβ = 1.005 in age 60–75 years, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The Lp(a)-associated risk was highest for concomitant IHD/AVS hospitalisations. The differential impact of sex and age was most pronounced in the AVS group with an increased risk only in women aged ≤75 years.
Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, aortic valve stenosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular risk, ischemic heart disease, lipoprotein(a), postmenopausal women
Published in DKUM: 12.06.2024; Views: 19; Downloads: 0
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Agile Machine Learning Model Development Using Data Canyons in Medicine : A Step towards Explainable Artificial Intelligence and Flexible Expert-Based Model Improvement
Bojan Žlahtič, Jernej Završnik, Helena Blažun Vošner, Peter Kokol, David Šuran, Tadej Završnik, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Over the past few decades, machine learning has emerged as a valuable tool in the field of medicine, driven by the accumulation of vast amounts of medical data and the imperative to harness this data for the betterment of humanity. However, many of the prevailing machine learning algorithms in use today are characterized as black-box models, lacking transparency in their decision-making processes and are often devoid of clear visualization capabilities. The transparency of these machine learning models impedes medical experts from effectively leveraging them due to the high-stakes nature of their decisions. Consequently, the need for explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) that aims to address the demand for transparency in the decision-making mechanisms of black-box algorithms has arisen. Alternatively, employing white-box algorithms can empower medical experts by allowing them to contribute their knowledge to the decision-making process and obtain a clear and transparent output. This approach offers an opportunity to personalize machine learning models through an agile process. A novel white-box machine learning algorithm known as Data canyons was employed as a transparent and robust foundation for the proposed solution. By providing medical experts with a web framework where their expertise is transferred to a machine learning model and enabling the utilization of this process in an agile manner, a symbiotic relationship is fostered between the domains of medical expertise and machine learning. The flexibility to manipulate the output machine learning model and visually validate it, even without expertise in machine learning, establishes a crucial link between these two expert domains.
Keywords: XAI, explainable artificial intelligence, data canyons, machine learning, transparency, agile development, white-box model
Published in DKUM: 14.03.2024; Views: 212; Downloads: 19
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