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1.
PolyHIPE supports in batch and flow-through Suzuki cross-coupling reactions
Jane F. Brown, Peter Krajnc, Neil R. Cameron, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: As part of ongoing research efforts to discover alternative support materials to polymer beads for use in polymer-supported synthesis, particularly under flow-through conditions, this work involves the synthesis of PolyHIPE (High Internal Phase Emulsion) polymer monoliths. PolyHIPEs containing high loadings of chloromethyl groups were efficiently prepared by the direct copolymerization of 4-vinylbenzyl chloride and divinylbenzene monomers. The 'Merrifield' PolyHIPE proved to be an excellent support for batch and flow-through Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. A remarkably high yield of pure biaryl product was obtained using the PolyHIPE support in cubic form and utilizing an electron-rich boronic acid. In comparison to polymer beads, this material was found to be a much more efficient support in both batch and continuous flow modes. PolyHIPE converted a greater amount of chloromethyl groups into biaryl product under identical reaction conditions. It is suggested that the absence of channelling with PolyHIPE monoliths gives better performance under flow-through conditions than permanently porous beads.
Keywords: polymer supports, polymer monoliths, emulsion polymerisation, solid-phase synthesis, cross-coupling reactions
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1234; Downloads: 30
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2.
Aryl acrylate based high-internal-phase emulsions as precursors for reactive monolithic polymer supports
Peter Krajnc, Dejan Štefanec, Jane F. Brown, Neil R. Cameron, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Water-in-oil high-internal-phase emulsions (HIPEs), containing 4-nitrophenyl acrylate and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl acrylate as reactive monomers, were prepared and polymerized, and highly porous monolithic materials resulted. The novel materials were studied by combustion analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis. With both esters, cellular macroporous monolithic polymers were obtained: the use of 4-nitrophenyl acrylate resulted in a cellular material with void diameters between 3 and 7 m and approximately3-m interconnects, whereas the use of 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl acrylate yielded a foam with void diameters between 2 and 5 m, most interconnects being around 1 m. The resulting monoliths proved to be very reactive toward nucleophiles, and possibilities of functionalizing the novel polymer supports were demonstrated via reactions with amines bearing additional functional groups and via the synthesis of an acid chloride derivative. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine derivatives were obtained. The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylacrylate removed thenitrophenyl group, yielding a monolithic acrylic acid polymer. Furthermore,functionalization to immobilized acid chloride was performed very efficiently, with more than 95% of the acid groups reacting. The measurement of the nitrogen content in 4-nitrophenyl acrylate poly(HIPE)s after various times of hydrolysis showed the influence of the total pore volume of the monolithic polymers on the velocity of the reaction, which was faster with themore porous polymer.
Keywords: organic chemistry, macroporous polymers, monolithic polymer supports, emulsion polymerisation, foams, functionalization of polymers, high-internal-phase emulsions
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1144; Downloads: 51
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Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics
Neil J. Salkind, higher education textbook

Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 596; Downloads: 48
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6.
Rural amenity and rural change in temperate Australia
Neil Argent, Matthew Tonts, Roy Jones, John Hubert Holmes, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Many rural areas in the developed world are experiencing planning and development challenges related to processes of population change. The nature, direction and regional manifestations of these changes are strongly related to the varying levels of local amenity. These result from the qualities of the local social, economic and physical environments and contribute to the ability of rural regions to attract and retain residents. In turn the presence or absence of this attractive ability is likely to engender development and sustainability challenges related to growth, decline or (where the attractive forces are demographically specific) social mix. This paper considers these challenges in the context of high amenity rural regions in temperate Australia.
Keywords: rural amenity, migration, temperate Australia, counter urbanisation, demographic change
Published: 20.03.2018; Views: 294; Downloads: 33
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