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1.
Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus
Mateja Felicijan, Metka Novak, Nada Kraševec, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758) and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP) cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus) and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica).
Keywords: antioxidants, ascorbate-glutathione system, blue-stain fungus, Norway spruce, phenolics, systemic acquired resistance
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 1702; Downloads: 426
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2.
DINAMIKA VSEBNOSTI ANTIOKSIDANTOV V LUBJU NAVADNE SMREKE [Picea abies (L.) H. KARST.] PO OKUŽBI Z GLIVO MODRIVKO [Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU]
Mateja Felicijan, 2014, master's thesis

Abstract: Osmerozobi smrekov lubadar (Ips typographus L.) in z njim povezana patogena gliva modrivka Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU sta eden izmed najbolj nevarnih škodljivcev navadne smreke [Picea abies (L.) H. KARST.]. Obrambni sistem lubja smreke zajema tri obrambne mehanizme (konstitutivno, inducirano in sistemsko pridobljeno obrambo) z različnimi obrambnimi strategijami. V sklopu magistrskega dela nas je zanimala dinamika vsebnosti posameznih fenolov, tiolov in askorbata v lubju navadne smreke pri okužbi s patogeno glivo v petmesečnem obdobju med 18. aprilom in 9. septembrom 2011. Začetni odziv na okužbo z glivo C. polonica je spremljal hiter porast večine antioksidantov. Tri dni po okužbi sta se močno povečali koncentraciji izorapontina in taksifolina, vsebnost katehina pa je padla. Kasneje so se koncentracije skupnih fenolov in katehina v floemu okuženih dreves do septembra postopoma povečevale. Nad nivojem kontrole so skozi petmesečno obdobje raziskave ostale tudi koncentracije taksifolina, ki so signifikantno odstopale v aprilu in juniju. Nekoliko višje koncentracije astringina v aprilu in maju so se kot odgovor na okužbo v kasnejših vzorčnih terminih znižale. Podobno se je tudi raven izorapontina v aprilu močno dvignila, nato pa se od junija dalje spustila pod raven kontrole. Za inicialni odziv askorbatno-glutationskega sistema na okužbo s patogeno glivo smo zabeležili značilno visoko raven glutation disulfida, ki ga spremlja nekoliko povišana raven skupnega askorbata in povečana aktivnost glutation reduktaze. Tri tedne kasneje smo v okuženih vzorcih zabeležili močno kopičenje tiolov, medtem ko so koncentracije skupnega askorbata signifikantno padle, redoks stanje askorbata pa se je preusmerilo k bolj oksidiranim vrednostim. Do sredine julija smo v okuženih drevesih izmerili tudi postopno povečevanje koncentracij skupnega glutationa, ki ga spremlja povečana aktivnost glutation reduktaze in obnovljeno redoks stanje glutationa. V septembru je askorbatno-glutationski sistem znotraj lubja okuženih dreves ponovno dosegel ravnovesje. Časovne spremembe koncentracij fenolnih snovi odražajo povečano obremenitev askorbatno-glutationskega sistema, ki je potreben za odstranjevanje v obrambi nastalih fenoksi radikalov. Na podlagi rezultatov lahko zaključimo, da je antioksidativni odziv lubja zaznamovan z nihanji v koncentracijah posameznih obrambnih molekul in določenimi časovnimi spremembami, na podlagi česar predpostavljamo, da je askorbatno-glutationski cikel ključni del obrambe lubja in je posredno vpleten tudi v metabolizem fenolov.
Keywords: navadna smreka Picea abies (L.)H.KARST., gliva modrivka Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM.) C. MOREAU, antioksidanti, fenoli, askorbatno-glutationski sistem
Published in DKUM: 01.09.2014; Views: 2279; Downloads: 235
.pdf Full text (3,53 MB)

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