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1.
Possibilities and concerns of implementing precision agriculture technologies on small farms in Slovenia
Jurij Rakun, Erik Rihter, Damijan Kelc, Denis Stajnko, Peter Vindiš, Peter Berk, Peter Polič, Miran Lakota, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Precision agriculture (PA) through the use and utilization of innovative technologies is a concept in agricultural management that enables long-term efficiency gains, control of unforeseen changes, and a reduction of negative impacts on the environment. However, there are even more reasons and benefits to using precision agriculture technologies (PATs) on farms, but the actual use on small farms is often questionable. The main objective of this research was to evaluate and analyze the current state of PA and its potential on a set of small farms. In addition, a comparison was made between small farms located in less favored areas (LFAs) and more favored areas (MFAs) to find if specific characteristics of the surrounding environment affect the (non-) implementation of these technologies by farm owners, with respect to the given regional possibilities. The result shows that 57.5% of respondents on these farms have never implemented PATs before and 20% are beginners in their respective fields. It was found that there were no statistically significant differences in the integration between fewer LFAs and MFAs technologies and their use in this study. The majority of respondents believe that the main changes need to occur on the level of politics. The results show that the level of cost or initial investment is the main reason and the main obstacle in the implementation of PATs on the surveyed farms.
Keywords: precision agriculture, small farm, technological innovations, implementation, situation overview, survey, ICT
Published in DKUM: 02.07.2024; Views: 94; Downloads: 2
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2.
Sensor fusion-based approach for the field robot localization on Rovitis 4.0 vineyard robot
Jurij Rakun, Matteo Pantano, Peter Lepej, Miran Lakota, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This study proposed an approach for robot localization using data from multiple low-cost sensors with two goals in mind, to produce accurate localization data and to keep the computation as simple as possible. The approach used data from wheel odometry, inertial-motion data from the Inertial Motion Unit (IMU), and a location fix from a Real-Time Kinematics Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). Each of the sensors is prone to errors in some situations, resulting in inaccurate localization. The odometry is affected by errors caused by slipping when turning the robot or putting it on slippery ground. The IMU produces drifts due to vibrations, and RTK GPS does not return to an accurate fix in (semi-) occluded areas. None of these sensors is accurate enough to produce a precise reading for a sound localization of the robot in an outdoor environment. To solve this challenge, sensor fusion was implemented on the robot to prevent possible localization errors. It worked by selecting the most accurate readings in a given moment to produce a precise pose estimation. To evaluate the approach, two different tests were performed, one with robot localization from the robot operating system (ROS) repository and the other with the presented Field Robot Localization. The first did not perform well, while the second did and was evaluated by comparing the location and orientation estimate with ground truth, captured by a hovering drone above the testing ground, which revealed an average error of 0.005 m±0.220 m in estimating the position, and 0.6°±3.5° when estimating orientation. The tests proved that the developed field robot localization is accurate and robust enough to be used on a ROVITIS 4.0 vineyard robot.
Keywords: localization, odometry, IMU, RTK GPS, vineyard, robot, sensors fusion, ROS, precision farming
Published in DKUM: 02.07.2024; Views: 68; Downloads: 6
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Pregled stanja in smernice razvoja preciznega kmetijstva v sloveniji
Erik Rihter, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: Precizno kmetijstvo (PK) z uporabo inovativnih tehnologij predstavlja koncept upravljanja kmetijskih gospodarstev, s pomočjo katerega je mogoče dolgoročno povečevanje učinkovitosti, obvladovanje nenadzorovanih sprememb in zmanjševanje negativnih vplivov na okolje. Magistrsko delo obravnava analizo vplivnih dejavnikov in karakteristik slovenskega kmetijstva na (ne)implementacijo tehnologij preciznega kmetovanja (TPK) ter določa spremenljivke, pomembne pri določanju (ne)uveljavitev teh tehnologij. S pregledom strategij in ukrepov na ravni Evropske unije in Slovenije ter z anketno raziskavo je ocenjeno trenutno stanje PK za množičnejšo integracijo. S pomočjo strateškega orodja SWOT-analize so podane smernice za prihodnost. Rezultati ankete kažejo, da 57,5 % anketirancev še nikoli ni implementiralo TPK. Izkazalo se je, da višina stroškov začetne investicije pri anketirancih predstavlja glavni razlog in oviro pri implementiranju TPK. Večina anketirancev (80 %) meni, da bi se za množičnejšo implementacijo moralo največ spremeniti v političnih instrumentih. Za preverjanje povezanosti posameznih specifičnih značilnosti anketiranih (velikost kmetije, starost in izobrazba upraviteljev) je bil uporabljen Fisherjev natančni test neodvisnosti, kjer je bilo ugotovljeno, da slednje značilnosti ne vplivajo na vpeljevanje TPK. Skupna kmetijska politika z različnimi akcijskimi načrti, resolucijami in podpornimi shemami financiranja zadnja leta aktivno spodbuja razvoj PK v EU in Sloveniji, prav tako se obetajo pozitivne smernice za prihajajoče programsko obdobje, vendar pa pomembno oviro za množičnejšo širitev PK predstavlja široka raznolikost kmetijstva. Za uspešnejšo vzpostavitev PK so pomembni inovativni pristopi, ki temeljijo na medsebojnem sodelovanju, krepitvi znanja in sooblikovanju rešitev v prakso.
Keywords: precizno kmetijstvo (PK), tehnološke inovacije, implementacija, kmetijska politika, pregled stanja
Published in DKUM: 04.06.2020; Views: 1628; Downloads: 341
.pdf Full text (1,20 MB)

5.
Uporaba brezpilotnih letalnikov za določanje ndvi indeksa na rastlinah oljne ogrščice
Žan Mongus, 2019, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Za spremljanje stanja rastlin oljne ogrščice od setve do žetve lahko uporabljamo različne sisteme daljinskega zaznavanja. V nalogi smo preučevali možnosti uporabe brezpilotnih letalnikov oz. dronov za določanje NDVI indeksa. Na poskusnem GERKu, ki smo ga med rastno sezono oljne ogrščice preleteli 3x, smo določili vrednosti NDVI indeksa in opazovali razloge za izmerjene vrednosti. Z ugotovitvami smo potrdili zaključke drugih raziskav. Vrednosti dobljene s posnetki dronov smo glede uporabnosti za morebitne naslednje ciljne ukrepe primerjali s posnetki satelita Sentinel in ugotovili, da so mnogo boljši in vsekakor bolj primerni kot vhodni podatki za pametne stroje in izvedbo ciljnih ukrepov selektivnega gnojenja in/ali nanosa zmanjšanih količin fitofarmacevtskih sredstev, kar predstavlja prihranke in hkrati določen prispevek k varovanju okolja.
Keywords: dron, aerofotografija, Oljna ogrščica, NDVI, daljinsko zaznavanje
Published in DKUM: 12.09.2019; Views: 1581; Downloads: 151
.pdf Full text (1,49 MB)

6.
Možnost uporabe brezpilotnih letalnikov v kmetijstvu
Benjamin Založnik, 2019, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V zadnjem času smo priča porastu uporabe brezpilotnih letalnikov v najrazličnejše namene. Kmetijstvo ni nobena izjema. Na osnovi kart pridelkov, ki jih lahko izdelamo ob žetvi, lahko kasneje z uporabo ustrezne mehanizacije izvedemo selektivne ukrepe. Podobne digitalne karte z informacijami o stanju rastlin v fazi vegetacije lahko izdelamo z uporabo brezpilotnih letalnikov, t. i. dronov. V ta namen so bili opravljeni poskusni preleti v vzhodnem delu Slovenije v skladu z zakonodajo s področja in izdelani poskusni ortomozaik posnetki. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da je tehnologija daljinskega zaznavanja v kombinaciji z droni v kmetijstvu uporabna, saj pridobljeni posnetki prikazujejo aktualne informacije o trenutnem stanju kmetijskih površin. Kvaliteta posnetkov je odvisna od vremenskih pogojev in kvalitete uporabljene opreme.
Keywords: aerofotografija / brezpilotni letalniki / daljinsko zaznavanje / NDVI
Published in DKUM: 11.09.2019; Views: 1466; Downloads: 193
.pdf Full text (1,57 MB)

7.
Zaznava bolezni in fizioloških motenj pšenice na podlagi sprememb vegetacijskih indeksov
Gašper Fridrih, 2019, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V zadnjem času se uvajajo droni oz. brezpilotna letala (uav) za spremljanje razvoja rastlin. Prednosti uporabe se kažejo v preprostem načrtovanju, nemotenem delovanju in pridobivanju posnetkov iz ptičje perspektive. S prenosom sistemov multispektralnih kamer in nizko višino leta zagotavljajo visoko ločljivost rastlin. Pšenica je kultura, ki se goji v največjem obsegu površin, zato ponuja velik interes po pridobitvi prostorskih in časovnih informacijah o rastlini. V nalogi smo prikazali določevanje različnih vegetacijskih indeksov na osnovi multispektralnih posnetkov z droni. Snemanja so bila izvedena na površinah podjetja JERUZALEM SAT d.d. v različnih obdobjih rasti pšenice. Na osnovi zajetih posnetkov smo s pomočjo programske opreme Pix4Dfields generirali različne vegetacijske indekse in poiskali vzorčne povezave s stanjem na polju. Pridobljeni podatki omogočajo selektivne nanose gnojil in fitofarmacevtskih sredstev ter tako pripomorejo k prihrankom v proizvodnji in zmanjšanim obremenitvam okolja.
Keywords: dron, pšenica, multispektralna kamera, vegetacijski indeksi, daljinsko zaznavanje
Published in DKUM: 09.09.2019; Views: 1530; Downloads: 198
.pdf Full text (1,81 MB)

8.
Razvoj nagibnega traktorskega sedeža
Miran Purgaj, 2019, bachelor thesis/paper

Abstract: Diplomsko delo obravnava razvoj nagibnega traktorskega sedeža, ki ob bočnih nagibih traktorja omogoča vozniku ohranjanje vertikalnega položaja telesa. Pregled literature je pokazal, da je bilo predstavljenih že precej idej o samo izravnalnih ali delno izravnalnih sedežih, a se zaradi različnih omejitev njihova serijska vgradnja ni obnesla. V nalogi je predstavljeno, kako smo načrtovali nagibni sedež in izdelali prototip. Opisana je kinematika sedeža in primeri izračunov nagiba sedeža za 30o v obe smeri. Prikazana je tudi kontrola uravnavanja sedeža in postavitev potrebnih hidravličnih cilindrov. V zaključku diplomskega dela so opisani tudi naši občutki in opažanja po preizkusu prototipa sedeža.
Keywords: traktor, ergonomija, traktorski sedež, nagibanje
Published in DKUM: 25.02.2019; Views: 1123; Downloads: 93
.pdf Full text (2,20 MB)

9.
Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards
Denis Stajnko, Peter Berk, Mario Lešnik, Viktor Jejčič, Miran Lakota, Andrej Štrancar, Marko Hočevar, Jurij Rakun, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluationof the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amountof spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD wasonly up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.
Keywords: air-assisted sprayer, ultrasound, algorithm, programmable, microcontroller, spray distribution, orchard
Published in DKUM: 22.06.2017; Views: 2239; Downloads: 476
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