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Effects of jaw clenching and mental stress on persistent inward currents estimated by two different methods
Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Janet Taylor, Gabriel Trajano, Aleš Holobar, Basilio Gonçalves, Anthony Blazevich, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Spinal motoneuron firing depends greatly on persistent inward currents (PICs), which in turn are facilitated by the neuromodulators serotonin and noradrenaline. The aim of this study was to determine whether jaw clenching (JC) and mental stress (MS), which may increase neuromodulator release, facilitate PICs in human motoneurons. The paired motor unit (MU) technique was used to estimate PIC contribution to motoneuron firing. Surface electromyograms were collected using a 32-channel matrix on gastrocnemius medialis (GM) during voluntary, ramp, plantar flexor contractions. MU discharges were identified, and delta frequency (ΔF), a measure of recruitment–derecruitment hysteresis, was calculated. Additionally, another technique was used (VibStim) that evokes involuntary contractions that persist after cessation of combined Achilles tendon vibration and triceps surae neuromuscular electrical stimulation. VibStim measures of plantar flexor torque and soleus activity may reflect PIC activation. ΔF was not significantly altered by JC (p = .679, n = 18, 9 females) or MS (p = .147, n = 14, 5 females). However, all VibStim variables quantifying involuntary torque and muscle activity during and after vibration cessation were significantly increased in JC (p < .011, n = 20, 10 females) and some, but not all, increased in MS (p = .017–.05, n = 19, 10 females). JC and MS significantly increased the magnitude of involuntary contractions (VibStim) but had no effect on GM ΔF during voluntary contractions. Effects of increased neuromodulator release on PIC contribution to motoneuron firing might differ between synergists or be context dependent. Based on these data, the background level of voluntary contraction and, hence, both neuromodulation and ionotropic inputs could influence neuromodulatory PIC enhancement.
Keywords: electromyography, bistability, HD-EMG, input–output function, motor neuron
Published in DKUM: 22.05.2024; Views: 50; Downloads: 1
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Stališča predstavnikov lokalnih skupnosti območja upravne enote Šmarje pri Jelšah do dela policije
Irena Gorenak, Gabrijel Devetak, 2003, published professional conference contribution

Keywords: policija, kakovost, policijsko delo, zadovoljstvo, javnost, lokalne skupnosti
Published in DKUM: 19.03.2024; Views: 106; Downloads: 3
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PSpice simulations for single-phase rectifiers for testing DC fuses
Adrian Plesca, Costica Nituca, Gabriel Chiriac, Zhiyuan Liu, Yingsan Geng, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: In this article, simulations were realized for different power rectifiers used for testing DC fuses. Using the OrCAD PSpice software, a single-phase uncontrolled bridge rectifier and a single-phase controlled bridge rectifier are simulated for different loads. From the data analysis, some important conclusions were realized regarding the form of the temperature waveforms in transient conditions and quasisteady state thermal conditions.
Keywords: Power Rectifiers, Simulation, PSpice, DC fuse
Published in DKUM: 05.12.2023; Views: 274; Downloads: 3
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Pantograph driven with a linear induction motor with adaptive fuzzy control
Costica Nituca, Gabriel Chiriac, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: This article presents an adaptive fuzzy control for a linear induction motor, which is used to control the vertical movement of a pantograph, which supplies an electric locomotive from a contact line. The system has the goal of eliminating all the discontinuity on the route, the resonance phenomenon, the separation of the pantograph head from the contact wire, and electric arches. The simulations demonstrate functional control of the pantograph driven with a linear induction motor system using fuzzy control techniques.
Keywords: linear induction motor, fuzzy control, locomotive pantograph, simulation
Published in DKUM: 05.12.2023; Views: 219; Downloads: 4
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Geometry design and analysis of an electric bus for the interior ther-mal modelling
Costica Nituca, Gabriel Chiriac, Georgel Gabor, Ilie Nucǎ, Vadim Cazac, Marcel Burduniuc, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system represents the main auxiliary load for any type of bus. Being the most significant energy-consuming auxiliary load for the electric bus, it must be given special attention in an electric bus system design. To study the heat transfer and thermal optimization for passenger comfort in the electric bus computer-aided design (CAD) is used. The geometry of an electric bus interior is designed considering the main components of the vehicle: passenger cabin, driver’s cabin, windows, walls, and seats. Materials of the same type as those used in the real bus are considered for the geometry model. Based on the heat transfer theory, a thermal model and simulations are made for the heat transfer inside the electric bus. The simulated data are compared with measurement data, and based on these, it can be concluded that the thermal model of the electric bus can be validated and used further for a wide variety of thermal simulation types.
Keywords: heat transfer, electric bus, passenger comfort, geometry design, thermal modelling
Published in DKUM: 13.11.2023; Views: 213; Downloads: 3
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Early spread of COVID-19 in Romania: imported cases from Italy and human-to-human transmission networks
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Jürgen Lerner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We describe the early spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the first human-to-human transmission networks, in Romania. We profiled the first 147 cases referring to sex, age, place of residence, probable country of infection, return day to Romania, COVID-19 confirmation date and the probable modes of COVID-19 transmissions. Also, we analysed human-to-human transmission networks and explored their structural features and time dynamics. In Romania, local cycles of transmission were preceded by imported cases, predominantly from Italy. We observed an average of 4.8 days (s.d. = 4.0) between the arrival to a Romanian county and COVID-19 confirmation. Furthermore, among the first 147 COVID-19 patients, 88 were imported cases (64 carriers from Italy), 54 were domestic cases, while for five cases the source of infection was unknown. The early human-to-human transmission networks illustrated a limited geographical dispersion, the presence of super-spreaders and the risk of COVID-19 nosocomial infections. COVID-19 occurred in Romania through case importation from Italy. The largest share of the Romanian diaspora is concentrated especially in the northern parts of Italy, heavily affected by COVID-19. Human mobility (including migration) accounts for the COVID-19 transmission and it should be given consideration while tailoring prevention measures.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, transmission networks, human mobility, migration, nosocomial infections
Published in DKUM: 16.12.2020; Views: 838; Downloads: 199
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Procedural justice and fairness in cases adjudicated and attitudes to recidivism among Nigerian prisoners
Gabriel Agboola Adetula, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The study critically examines procedural justice and fairness in court processes, the Nigerian prison system, term of imprisonment, and prisoners’ perception of treatment effects on their attitude to recidivism behaviour practice in the Nigerian socio-cultural context. The aim is to measure the relationship between cases adjudicated, imprisonment term, length of sentence, crime committed, court fairness and recidivism attitude. Design/Methods/Approach: The study adopts an ex-post facto design approach for the survey. Three hundred prisoners from the Olokuta and Owo prisons in Ondo State, Nigeria were randomly selected as participants. Questionnaires and oral interview questions were adapted to elicit data. Pearson product moment correlation statistical analysis was used to process the data. Findings: The results show that the six measurement variables correlated at different levels of significance and directions with the object being measured – recidivism attitude. Research Limitations / Implications: Access to prison and soliciting the data from the required number of prisoners was difficult due to restrictions. Nigerian courts are classified as ‘sacred’, and criminal records are untouchable, unreadable and inaccessible. These hindrances posed limits on research efforts to obtain sufficient data for the analysis. Practical Implications: The correlation results of the analysis not only show the directions of the variables’ usefulness to each other, but also provide an emerging information resource that may serve as a primary data source or be of use in future investigations. Originality/Value: Given the nature of psychometric properties, a new idea concerning the measurement of attitudes has emerged – the scale may be used to measure the treatment of a prisoner’s attitude to recidivism. It might hold the potential to be used as a method to help scholars and experts better define the concept of recidivism.
Keywords: recidivism, recidivism, crime, prisons, rehabilitation
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2020; Views: 853; Downloads: 53
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Intercultural differences in the purchase and information behaviour of young consumers
Beno Klemenčič, Gabrijel Devetak, Darko Števančec, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Pressures in the contemporary marketing environment are getting bigger and companies and marketers are required to know consumers and their purchase and information behaviour. In this article we studied the behaviour of consumers and the factors of purchase and information behaviour of young consumers when choosing clothes. We found out about the meaning of individual clothing characteristics having impact on the purchase decision making (price, trademark, fitting of clothing, design, quality, etc.). Consumers receive and look for information at different sources (radio commercials, TV commercials and shows, fashion magazines, catalogue sales, social networks, friends and acquaintances, etc.). With the empiric research we wanted to find out to what measure individual sources influence the purchase decision of an individual. We studied young people aged from 15 to 24 in the countries of the EU (Slovenia, Austria and Germany) and the United States of America. We especially focused on characteristic differences. Knowing intercultural differences is important for global companies of the clothing industry for forming their marketing strategies. On the sample of 440 young people who took part in the survey we found out that intercultural differences exist regarding the influence of individual information sources and regarding the factors of purchase decision making. Considering the stated we propose companies operating in global markets on both continents to prepare differentiated marketing strategies.
Keywords: consumer behaviour, clothing, marketing strategies, intercultural differences
Published in DKUM: 23.01.2018; Views: 1491; Downloads: 357
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Relation between knowledge management and turnover in Slovenian micro and small start-up organisations
Riko Novak, Vasja Roblek, Gabrijel Devetak, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: This article discusses the importance of knowledge management and employee turnover, using the example of selected Slovenian organisations, in particular, technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical characteristics between employee turnover and certain selected independent variables. The empirical research was conducted on a population of 667 Slovenian organisations gathered from the subjects of an innovative environment database, and a further sample of 51 chosen technology parks from the A group. By implementing multivariate regression analysis, we sought to examine whether knowledge requirements and knowledge transfer paths in these organisations have a statistically significant influence on employee turnover. The aim of this article is to present the results of empirical research that defines the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of knowledge management on employee turnover. The results have shown that the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement must be acknowledged within an organisation.
Keywords: employee turnover, knowledge management, organisations, employees
Published in DKUM: 22.01.2018; Views: 1251; Downloads: 404
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Homophily in coauthorship networks of East European sociologists
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: We study to what degree and how homophily and network properties affect individual citation counts of researchers in the sociology departments of three East European countries, namely Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. We built first-order personal coauthorship networks out of the Web of Science publication records. Each sociologist is assigned as a focal node or ego, while her coauthors are alters. We analyze the data using structural measurements methods, hierarchical regression models, and we make visualizations based on the clustered graph technique. For all three populations, our results indicate that the mean score of the citations of alters substantially predicts the citation counts of egos. In particular, citation similarity increases the chances for coauthorship ties. Evidence for the impact of network properties on the citation levels of egos is mixed. For Poland, normalized ego-betweenness shows a negative effect on citation counts, while network density displays a positive one. For Romania and Slovenia, network characteristics have only a minor impact. Even if the visual summarization of the personal networks uncovers a wide palette of coauthorship patterns, homophily appears to be pervasive. These results are relevant for domestic policy makers who aim to improve the aggregated research performance in East European countries.
Keywords: social network, sociology, homophily, physics of social systems
Published in DKUM: 23.06.2017; Views: 909; Downloads: 406
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