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Development of the smart T-shirt for monitoring thermal status of athletes
Sandra Stojanović, Jelka Geršak, Suzana Uran, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Athletes are often subjected to a great physical strain during training and competition. Sport activities performed in hot and humid conditions may result in different heat illnesses with mild or fatal consequences. Against this background it is important to know the thermal state of athletes during physical activity. This article presents the development of a smart T-shirt for monitoring the thermal status of an athlete. The smart T-shirt was created by embedding an electronic system with temperature and humidity sensors that allows the measurement of temperature and the relative humidity of the microclimate. A smart T-shirt is comfortable, and integrated sensors and electronics do not affect wearing comfort. A good concurrence between the temperature and humidity results from using the smart T-shirt, and thus the medical device was achieved. Data obtained can be of great importance to the sports staff who will be able to monitor the athletes' thermal state during matches and competitions.
Keywords: smart T-shirt, microclimate temperature, relative humidity of the microclimate
Published in DKUM: 26.03.2024; Views: 105; Downloads: 9
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Influence of structural and constructional parameters of knitted fabrics on the thermal properties of men's socks
Predrag Tasić, Dušan Trajković, Jelka Geršak, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The research is focused on determining the influence of structural and constructional parameters of rib knitted fabrics on the thermal properties of men's socks. Men's socks are made in three different pattern constructions of three types of basic yarns: bamboo, cotton and a cotton/polyester blend with the additional filament polyamide yarn and wrapped rubber wire for the so-called render socks. For all analyzed sock rib patterns, the most important structural parameters of the yarn and construction parameters of the knitted fabrics were determined. Thermal properties of socks such as the cool touch feeling property, thermal conductivity, heat retention coefficient and thermal resistance were determined by using Thermal Labo and Thermal Mannequin measuring devices. The structural and constructional parameters of knitted fabrics were shown to affect the investigated thermal properties of the socks, making them more or less insulating or heat conducting. Values of the warm-cold feeling parameter as well as thermal conductivity vary depending on the construction pattern, showing a decrease as the number of face loops is increased i.e. in the sequence R1:1> R3:1> R7:1. The ability to retain heat decreases in the opposite sequence R7:1 > R3:1 > R1:1. The highest values of heat retention were determined for R7:1 rib knitted socks by both methods. A regression equation has been established with thickness, loop length, mass per unit area and porosity as independent variables, and thermal resistance (determined by the Thermo Labo method) as the dependent variable. The loop length and mass per unit area were shown to contribute significantly to the model.
Keywords: yarn, rib knitted fabric, thermal insulation
Published in DKUM: 06.02.2024; Views: 146; Downloads: 10
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Influence of undergarments on the comfort level of scoliosis brace wearers
O. Nagy Szabó, Jelka Geršak, A. Koleszár, Marianna Halász, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Bracing has proven to be an effective method for the conventional treatment of scoliosis in young people. A brace, a therapeutic device, covers the upper body and promotes healing by applying pressure to specific areas. However, wearing a scoliosis brace negatively affects the user’s thermo-physiological well-being and often leads to discomfort. In this study, we investigated the influence of T-shirts as an undergarment on the thermo-physiological well-being of the brace wearer. For this purpose, we performed a comparative analysis of six T-shirts made from different special knitted fabrics. We carried out wearing tests in a computer-controlled climate chamber according to a predetermined protocol. The test subject wore the orthopedic brace over the different T-shirts at three different temperatures. The results indicate that the knitted fabrics of undergarments and environmental conditions considerably impact the wearer’s thermo-physiological comfort. In the tests, the T-shirts made from the selected functional fabrics performed very well. The T-shirt made from the classic cotton fabric containing elastane yarn also performed well and was the most environmentally friendly. Currently, due to its lower price and easier availability, this cotton T-shirt can be recommended for wearing under a scoliosis brace.
Keywords: clothing physiology, undergarment, knitted fabrics, scoliosis brace, climate chamber, textile material testing
Published in DKUM: 05.09.2023; Views: 265; Downloads: 21
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Synergistic effect of screen-printed Al(OH)[sub]3 nanoparticles and phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils on the thermophysiological comfort and high-intensive heat protection properties of flame-retardant fabric
Tjaša Kolar, Jelka Geršak, Nataša Knez, Vanja Kokol, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Al(OH)3 nanoparticles (ATH NPs) and phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils (PCNFs) were used as user-friendly and comfortable coating components on flame-retardant fabric to improve its thermophysiological comfort and high-intensive heat protection properties. The effect of the PCNF imprinting and its attachment after the post-printing of a hydrophobic polyacrylate (AP) on the same (back side) or the other (front) side of the fabric, with and without the addition of ATH NPs, was considered, to maintain the front side (facing the wearer) as hydrophilic while keeping the back side (facing the outside) hydrophobic. The amount of coatings applied and their patterning were studied, varied with the ATH NPs’ concentration (1.7, 3.3 and 6.7 wt%) and screen mesh size used (60 and 135), based on the coating’ mass, fabric’s air permeability, thickness and microstructure. The reduced moisture build-up (55%), increased the water vapour (13%) and heat (12%) transfer from the skin, were assessed by applying PCNF under the AP, being more pronounced in the case of using a 135 mesh-sized screen, given the smaller, more densely distributed, thinner and imprinted pattern coatings. These effects were further improved by the addition of nanoporous ATH NPs, which allowed more homogeneous spreading of the moisture and its faster transport. Such a treatment also shifted the fabric’s degradation temperature towards higher values (up to 15°C), retained up to 30% of high-heat flux (21 kW/m2), prolonged the time to ignition by 11 s and reduced the total heat released by up to 60%, thereby providing better protection when exposed to the heat, due to the presence of the phosphorous (PCNF) promoted generation of an Al2O3 char acting as a barrier layer, while also reducing the production of heat and generation of smoke by 75%.
Keywords: tekstilna tehnologija, ognjevaren tekstil, Al(OH)3 nanodelci, celulozni nanofibrili, tiskanje tekstilij, optične lastnosti, termofiziološko udobje, toplotna zaščita, flame-retardant textile, Al(OH)3 nanoparticles, phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils, screen-printing, thermophysiological comfort, heat protection
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2023; Views: 347; Downloads: 11
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Analysis of dynamics and fit of diving suits
Maja Mahnić, Slavenka Petrak, Jelka Geršak, Tomislav Rolich, 2017, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: textile fabrics, 3D body scanning, 3D simulation, garment design
Published in DKUM: 04.04.2018; Views: 1199; Downloads: 273
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Vrednotenje toplotnih lastnosti tekstilij in njihovih kombinacij
Damjana Celcar, Jelka Geršak, Harriet Meinander, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: V prispevku je predstavljeno vrednotenje toplotnih lastnosti ploskih tekstilij in njihovih kombinacij, namenjenih za poslovna oblačila, ki je potekalo v dveh delih. V prvem delu so bile raziskane toplotne lastnosti ploskih tekstilij ovrednotene na različnih merilnih napravah, ki omogočajo merjenje prehoda toplote in/ali prehoda vodne pare skozi plosko tekstilijo, in sicer s pomočjo toplotne plošče ter merilnih naprav Thermo Labo II in Permetest. V tem delu raziskave so bile raziskane povezave med lastnostmi ploskih tekstilij oziroma odvisnosti med posameznimi parametri toplotnih lastnosti analiziranih ploskih tekstilij, izmerjenimi na različnih merilnih napravah ter odvisnosti med toplotnimi lastnostmi in debelino tekstilije. V drugem delu raziskave so bile raziskane toplotne lastnosti kombinacij posameznih ploskih tekstilij in sicer s pomočjo toplotnega cilindra s simulacijo znojenja, ki omogoča merjenje prehoda toplote in prehoda vodne pare skozi tekstilije ali kombinacijo tekstilij. Za ta namen je bil raziskan vpliv klimatskih razmer in stopnje znojenja na toplo-tne lastnosti posameznih kombinacij ploskih tekstilij. Raziskava je pokazala, da med parametri toplotnega upora, izmerjenega s toplotno ploščo, ter merilnima napravama Permetest in Thermo Labo II, obstajajo statistično pomembne korelacije, in da med toplotnim uporom, določenim iz kvocienta debeline in toplotne prevodnosti, dobljene z merilno napravo Thermo Labo II ter toplotnim uporom, dobljenim s toplotno ploščo in z merilno napravo Permetest prav tako obstaja korelacija. Potrjeno je, da se z naraščajočo debelino materiala vrednosti toplotnega upora in upora proti prehodu vodne pare ploskih tekstilij povečujejo. Hkrati je bilo ugotovljeno, da različne klimatske razmere in stopnje znojenja vplivajo na toplotne lastnosti kombinacij ploskih tekstilij. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da so toplotne lastnosti, tj. suhi in evaporativni toplotni tok ter sposobnost prehoda vodne pare odvisne od klimatskih razmer oziroma temperaturnega gradienta med površino cilindra in temperaturo zraka, in da se z različno stopnjo znojenja, vrednosti evaporativnega toplotnega toka, korigiranega toplotnega upora in sposobnosti prehoda vodne pare spremenijo.
Keywords: ploske tekstilije, toplotne lastnosti, toplotno udobje, toplotna plošča, Thermo Labo II, Permetest, toplotni cilinder s simulacijo znojenja
Published in DKUM: 01.09.2017; Views: 1445; Downloads: 153
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Vpliv vrste in tipa šiva na nabiranje šiva
Dunja Šajn, Jelka Geršak, 2002, original scientific article

Abstract: V prispevku je predstavljen vpliv vrste in tipa šiva na nabiranje šiva. Nabiranje šiva, ki se kaže v obliki negladke površine šivanca v področju šiva, je eden od osnovnih problemov pri konfekcioniranju finejših tkanin kot so popelini, svilene in viskozne tkanine in tkanine iz mikrovlaken. V raziskavi je preučen vpliv vrste in tipa šiva na stopnjo nabiranja šiva PES tkanine neposredno po šivanju, likanju ter večkratnem pranju in likanju.
Keywords: sukanec, vrsta šiva, nabiranje šiva
Published in DKUM: 01.09.2017; Views: 788; Downloads: 76
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Vpliv oblačila na toplotno fiziološko udobje človeka pri različnih obremenitvah in klimatskih pogojih
Jelka Geršak, Dragana Grujić, 2003, original scientific article

Abstract: Udobnost pri nošenju je pomembno merilo pri vrednotenju kakovosti določenega oblačila med uporabo. Oblačilo mora omogočiti določeno toplotno izolacijo, ustrezno stopnjo prepustnosti vlage in dobro ventilacijo, da bi lahko bila zagotovljena optimalna toplotna regulacija človeškega telesa. Rezultat uravnoteženih interakcij v sistemu »človek-klima-oblačilo« se izraža v udobju pri nošenju oblačila. V prispevku je podan vpliv oblačila na toplotno fiziološko udobje človeka pri različnih obremenitvah in različnih klimatskih pogojih na podlagi eksperimentalno določenih toplotno fizioloških veličin, kot so: srednja temperatura kože, srčna frekvenca in količina evaporiranega znoja.
Keywords: tekstilna industrija, oblačila, občutek udobja, termofiziološko udobje, temperatura kože, srčna frekvenca, evaporiran znoj, fiziološki parametri
Published in DKUM: 01.09.2017; Views: 1502; Downloads: 133
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