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81.
PRIMERJAVA UČINKOVITOSTI OBDELAVE TEKSTILNIH ODPADNIH VODA S KOAGULACIJO/FLOKULACIJO IN MEMBRANSKIM BIOREAKTORJEM
Iris Varga, 2011, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Obdelava tekstilnih odpadnih voda je težavna zaradi njene kompleksne sestave. Največji onesnaževalci teh voda so barvila, ki so težko razgradljiva. Za razbarvanje tekstilnih odpadnih voda je bilo razvitih mnogo različnih metod, vendar zaradi raznolike sestave barvil še niso odkrili univerzalnega postopka. Koagulacija/flokulacija je fizikalno - kemijska metoda, ki je učinkovita pri obdelavi tekstilnih odpadnih voda. Lahko se uporablja kot samostojen proces, v kombinaciji z drugo metodo ali pa kot predobdelava, na primer za membranski bioreaktor. Uporaba membranskega bioreaktorja je postala privlačna alternativa obdelave odpadnih voda, ker vsebuje kombinacijo biološkega čiščenja z aktivnim blatom in membransko filtracijo.Namen diplomske naloge je bilo očistiti modelno sintetično odpadno vodo, ki smo jo pripravili v laboratoriju, s koagulacijo/flokulacijo in membranskim bioreaktorjem. Pri izvajanju koagulacije/flokulacije smo ugotovili, da je FeCl3 bolj učinkovit koagulant pri obdelave modelne odpadne vode, kot Al2(SO4)3. Med obratovanjem MBR pa smo s spremljanjem nekaterih parametrov in izvajanjem kemijskih analiz ugotovili, da se je KPK po biološki obdelavi znižal za 30% in obarvanost za 32 %, po ultrafiltraciji pa se je KPK znižal za 64 % ter obarvanost za 76 %.
Keywords: membranski bioreaktor, koagulacija, flokulacija, obdelava tekstilne odpadne vode, aktivno blato, biološko čiščenje, ultrafiltracija, kisla barvila
Published: 12.10.2011; Views: 2811; Downloads: 223
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82.
PRIMERJAVA KERAMIČNIH IN POLIMERNIH ULTRAFILTRACIJSKIH MODULOV ZA ČIŠČENJE OLJNO VODNIH EMULZIJ
Arnela Murić, 2011, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Odpadne oljno vodne emulzije so eden od glavnih onesnaževal, ki se pojavljajo v številnih industrijskih področjih in so zelo škodljive za okolje, zlasti za vodno življenje. Običajno oljno vodne emulzije vsebujejo 1 – 10 % olj, prav tako emulgatorje in druge kemikalije, kot so površinsko aktivne snovi, itd. Vse konvencionalne metode za obdelavo oljno vodnih emulzij kot so flotacija, koagulacija, adsorpcija, itd imajo svoje prednosti, vendar nobena ni učinkovita kot membranska tehnologija, ki omogoča uporabo različnih materialov, modulov, načinov obratovanja itd. Cilj te diplomske naloge je bil primerjati keramične in polimerne membranske module za obdelavo odpadnih oljno vodnih emulzij kovinsko-predelovalne industrije Hidria Rotomatika d.o.o. Poleg realnih vzorcev emulzij in permeatov iz industrijske čistilne naprave smo obratovali tudi v laboratoriju z dvema pilotnima napravama – s keramičnim in polimernim membranskim modulom – in sicer z 1, 2 in 4 % raztopinami Ultra Safe 620 v kislem in alkalnem mediju. Gre za hidravlično olje, ki ga v Hidrii Rotomatiki d.o.o. uporabljajo v proizvodnji in ki je glavni povzročitelj mašenja membran. Ugotovili smo, da so glede samega obratovanja veliko boljše keramične membrane, kjer je bilo prisotno predvsem reverzibilno mašenje membrane, medtem ko je pri polimernih membranah prevladovalo ireverzibilno mašenje membrane, ki zahteva več čiščenja. Analizno delo je obsegalo merjenje fizikalno-kemijskih parametrov: pH, prevodnost, motnost, kemijska potreba po kiskiu, težkohlapne lipofilne snovi, skupne suspendirane in železo, saj smo na podlagi zmanjšanja vsebnosti snovi v permeatih glede na vsebnost v vhodnih emulzijah potrdili višjo učinkovitost keramičnih membran v primerjavi s polimernimi.
Keywords: oljno vodne emulzije, membranska tehnologija, mašenje, polietilen-glikol, učinkovitost
Published: 12.10.2011; Views: 2351; Downloads: 209
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83.
ODSTRANJEVANJE IZBRANIH ONESNAŽIL IZ VODE Z ZEOLITOM IN KELATNIM POLIMEROM
Tanja Širec, 2011, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Z razgradnjo rastlinskega materiala, živali in mikroorganizmov v tleh in vodi se proizvajajo različne kompleksne organske molekule, ki jih imenujemo naravne organske snovi (NOM). Namen naloge je bil uspešno odstranit naravne organske snovi iz modelne vode. Ker moramo omenjene snovi iz vode odstraniti, se v zadnjem času v ta namen veliko uporabljajo membrane. Zato smo v nalogi izvajali poskuse s tistimi snovmi, ki lahko najbolj mašijo membrane. Izbrali smo predstavnika sladkorjev, polietilenglikol in alginat. Delo je potekalo z njihovo adsorpcijo na zeolit 4A in 13X, proizvajalca Silkem Kidričevo in Petro Chemicals Limited iz Indije ter s kelatnim polimerom P 26T, proizvajalca Biomontan. Z zeolitom 4A in 13X ter kelatnim polimerom P 26T se organske snovi zelo slabo odstranijo iz raztopine glukoze in glutaminske kisline. Smo pa z njimi bolj uspešno odstranili alginat iz raztopine. Poliglikol iz raztopine odstranita zeolita 4A in 13X. Glede na raziskavo predlagamo za odstranitev poliglikola iz raztopine zeolit 4A, ki ga odstrani do 76,4 %, za alginat pa Petrosorb 26T, ki ga odstrani do 94,4 %.
Keywords: odpadna voda, zeolit, kelatni polimer P 26T, adsorpcija, naravne organske snovi
Published: 28.10.2011; Views: 1997; Downloads: 200
.pdf Full text (2,38 MB)

84.
VPLIV VSEBNOSTI MODAKRILA V BOMBAŽNIH VZORCIH NA POTENCIAL ZETA
Leja Ločniškar, 2011, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Potencial zeta je eksperimentalno določljiva veličina in je rezultat delovanja elektrokinetičnih pojavov. Nanaša se na spremembo potenciala na strižni površini med premikajočim in mirujočim delom difuzne dvojne plasti. Namen diplomske naloge je bil ugotoviti kako gostota zloženosti prej v cilindrični celici vpliva na potencial zeta in kakšen vpliv ima nanj širina reže pretočnega kanala v celici z nastavljivo režo. Ugotavljali smo tudi ali so rezultati potenciala zeta prej in pletenin med seboj primerljivi. V naši raziskavi smo potencial zeta določali z elektrokinetičnim analizatorjem SurPASS, ki temelji na merjenju pretočnega toka in pretočnega potenciala. Z uporabo tega instrumenta je mogoče dobiti tudi informacijo o realnem potencialu zeta, in ne le o navideznem. Rezultati merjenj v cilindrični celici so pokazali, da z naraščajočo gostoto zloženosti postaja potencial zeta vse manj negativen. Rezultati merjenj v celici z nastavljivo režo pa so pokazali, da širina reže pretočnega kanala, z izjemo 100% modakrila, ne vpliva na potencial zeta. S primerjavo rezultatov potenciala zeta prej in pletenin smo ugotovili, da celici dajeta primerljive rezultate navideznega potenciala zeta. Ugotovili smo tudi, da realni in navidezni potencial zeta nista primerljiva zaradi velikih razlik v absolutnih vrednostih. Za informacijo o realnem potencialu zeta bo raziskavo potrebno nadaljevati z merjenjem v modificirani celici z nastavljivo režo. Rezultati merjenj v cilindrični celic in celici z nastavljivo režo so potrdili pričakovan trend vzorcev glede na vsebnost bombaža in modakrila, in sicer da s povečano vsebnostjo modakrila potencial zeta postaja vse bolj negativen.
Keywords: potencial zeta, pretočni potencial, modakril, cilindrična celica, gostota zloženosti
Published: 04.11.2011; Views: 1623; Downloads: 106
.pdf Full text (3,35 MB)

85.
Zeta potential determination of polymeric materials using two differently designed measuring cells of an electrokinetic analyzer
Hermina Bukšek, Thomas Luxbacher, Irena Petrinić, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: The so-called zeta potential can be determined through electrokinetic measurements and indicates the status regarding surface charges along the interface between solids and liquids. Surface charge gives us information about the condition, quality, and characteristics of a macroscopic surface in the polar medium. In our study the zeta potential was determined using a 'SurPASS' electrokinetic analyzer based on the streaming current and streaming potential measurements. The aim of the research was to compare the results of two differently designed measuring cells ('Adjustable Gap Cell' and 'Clamping Cell') but operating on the same principle. In order to investigate this problem, the zeta potential was determined for the three polymeric materials: poly(ethylene terephthalate) foil, thin-film polyamide composite membranes for nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The results obtained with 'Clamping Cell' versus 'Adjustable Gap Cell' showed differences in zeta potential, where the 'Adjustable Gap Cell' gave more reproducible results. One reason for this behaviour could be the different geometries of the streaming channels. A more likely reason is the design of the 'Clamping Cell', that requires a sample size larger than necessary for zeta potential determination.
Keywords: electrical double layer, zeta potential, electrokinetic analyser, streaming current potential, polymeric materials
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 941; Downloads: 70
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86.
Removal efficiency of COD, total P and total N components from municipal wastewater using hollow-fibre MBR
Irena Petrinić, Mirjana Čurlin, Jasmina Korenak, Marjana Simonič, 2011, professional article

Abstract: The membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrates well within the conventionally activated sludge system regarding advanced membrane separation for wastewater treatment. Over the last decade, a number of MBR systems have been constructed worldwide and this system is now accepted as a technology of choice for wastewater treatment especially for municipal wastewater. The aim of this work was to investigate and compare submerged MBR with conventionally-activated sludge system for the treatment of municipal wastewater in Maribor, Slovenia. It can be concluded from the results, that the efficiencies being determined by the parameters were satisfied, such as, chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen, which were 97%,75%, and 90%, respectively. The efficiencies of ultrafiltration membrane for the same parameters were also determined, and compared with biological treatment. The results of this analysis show an additional effect regarding an improvement in the quality of the permeate but primary treatment is also very important. For successfully application of MBR system smaller grid for primary treatment is needed.
Keywords: municipal wastewater treatment, membrane bioreactor, membrane filtration, biological treatment
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1189; Downloads: 56
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87.
Laundry wastewater treatment using coagulation and membrane filtration
Sonja Šostar-Turk, Irena Petrinić, Marjana Simonič, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the results obtained from laundry wastewater treatment using conventional methods namely precipitation/coagulation and the flocculation process with adsorption on granular-activated carbon (GAC) and an alternative method, membrane filtrations, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Chemical analyses showed that parameter values of untreated wastewater like temperature, pH, sediment substances, total nitrogen and phosphorous, COD, BOD5, and the amount of anion surfactants had been exceeded in regard to Slovenian regulation. These regulations can be used as requirements for wastewater reuse and make treated wastewater an available source for the existing water supply. The study of conventional treatment was based on a flocculation with Al2(SO4)3 18H2O and adsorption on GAC. Membrane filtrations were studied on a pilot wastewater treatment plant: ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The membranes used in this experiment were ceramic UF membrane and spiral wounded - polyethersulfone- RO membranes. The quality of the wastewater was improved by both methods and the specifications of a concentration limit for emission into water were confirmed. The disadvantage of GAC is that there is no possibility of any kind of selection, which is essential for recycling and re-use, while permeate coming from RO met the required regulation as well as requirements for reusing in washing process. However, the economical analyses showed that the membrane filtrations are more expensive compared to the GAC treatment process.
Keywords: laundries, washing of textiles, waste waters, advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, membrane filtration, coagulation
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1563; Downloads: 82
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88.
Wastewater treatment after reactive printing
Sonja Šostar-Turk, Marjana Simonič, Irena Petrinić, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Membrane filtration of wastewater after textile printing with reactive dyes isdescribed. The wastewater from a Slovenian factory, whose output is approx. 80% reactive dyes printed and dyed on cotton, was studied. In particular, the presence of urea, sodium alginate, oxidation agent and reactive dyes, used forthe printing paste preparation, in the wastewater was studied. Chemical analyses of actual, non-purified, wastewater showed that many Slovenian regulations were exceeded. The study of membrane filtration is based on a pilot wastewater treatment plantČ ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The quality of the wastewater was improved by ultrafiltration, butits effluent still does not conform to the specification of concentration limits for emission into water. Permeate coming from RO meets the required specification and, therefore, could be re-used in the washing process of printed textiles.
Keywords: textile printing, reactive dyes, wastewater treatment, membrane filtration, pilot plant
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1790; Downloads: 61
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89.
The removal of reactive dye printing compounds using nanofiltration
Irena Petrinić, Niels Peder Raj Andersen, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: A synthetically prepared reactive dye print wastewater, mimicking real wastewater obtained from a local textile mill, was treated by nanofiltration using an NFT-50 membrane in a plate and frame module configuration at different cross-flow velocities (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m/s) and pressures (2-15 bar). The nanofiltration membrane was evaluated for membrane fouling, permeate flux and its suitability for removing colour, conductivity, Na+ ions and COD as a function of operating pressure and feed concentration. The permeate separation efficiency was monitored by measuring the removal efficiency of colour, conductivity, Na+ ions and COD retention. The membrane achieved high dye retention for each of the four dyes (from 99.4 to 99.9%) and electrolytes used (63-73%). The retention of organic substances varied between 20 and 50%, depending on the pressure used; higher retentions were achieved at higher pressure and by using higher cross-flow velocities.
Keywords: nanofiltration, nanofitration membranes, wastewater after reactive printing, reactive dye, concentration polarization
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1118; Downloads: 64
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90.
FIZIKALNO - KEMIJSKA OBDELAVA ODPADNIH MINERALNIH OLJNIH GOŠČ
Petra Knaus, 2014, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Odpadne mineralne oljne gošče obdelujemo s pomočjo fizikalnih in kemijskih procesov. Kot primarne separacijske procese smo uporabili zamrzovanje/taljenje in flokulacijo. Postopek smo nadaljevali z ekstrakcijo, centrifugiranjem in filtracijo ter kot končni postopek obdelave uporabili ultrafiltracijo in vakuumsko uparevanje. Pri vsem tem smo upoštevali optimalno temperaturo, tlak in pH vrednost za najučinkovitejšo in ekonomično obdelavo odpadnih mineralnih oljnih gošč. Namen diplomskega dela je bil ločitev oljno - vodne emulzije, z več kot 50% vsebnostjo olja, na oljno in vodno fazo, pri čemer smo se osredotočili na končno kvaliteto in kvantiteto vodne faze. Pri tem smo spremljali nekaj fizikalno-kemijskih parametrov, kot so elementarna koncentracija določena z EDXRF spektrometrom, pH, temperatura, električna prevodnost, kalorična vrednost ter kemijska potreba po kisiku (KPK), biološka potreba po kisiku (BPK) in vsebnost dušika, katere smo merili s pomočjo NANOCOLOR® fotometra in primerjali ustreznost s predpisanimi mejnimi vrednostmi, ki so v veljavi v Sloveniji. Pri tem smo ugotovili, da so ti parametri dosegli najboljšo vrednost pri končni obdelavi vodne faze oljno - vodne emulzije z vakuumskim uparevanjem.
Keywords: oljno-vodna emulzija, zamrzovanje/taljenje, flokulacija, ultrafiltracija, vakuumsko uparevanje
Published: 17.10.2014; Views: 1165; Downloads: 98
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