FORMULATION, PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOEMULSIONS FOR PARENTERAL NUTRITION : doctoral disertationDušica Mirković
, 2019, doctoral dissertation
Abstract: The aim of this doctoral research was to develop and optimize parenteral nanoemulsions as well as the total parenteral nutrition (TPN) admixture containing a nanoemulsion obtained in the course of the optimization process (hereinafter referred to as optimal nanoemulsion), and to examine their physicochemical and biological quality as well. In addition, the quality of the prepared nanoemulsions was compared with the quality of the industrial nanoemulsion (Lipofundin® MCT/LCT 20%), and, in the end, the TPN admixture initially prepared was also compared with the admixture into which the industrial emulsion was incorporated.
Parenteral nanoemulsions that were considered in this dissertation were prepared by the high-pressure homogenization method. This method is the most widely applied method for the production of nanoemulsions due to the shortest length of homogenization time, the best-obtained homogeneity of the product and the smallest droplet diameter.
For the nanoemulsion formulation, preparation and optimization purposes, by using, firstly, the concept of the computer-generated fractional design, and, after that, the full experimental design, the assessment of both direct effects of different formulation and process parameters (the oil phase type, the emulsifier type and concentration, a number of homogenization cycles and the pressure under which homogenization was carried out) as well as the effects of their interactions on the characteristics of prepared nanoemulsions was performed.
Monitoring the nanoemulsion physical and chemical stability parameters was carried out immediately after their preparation, and then after 10, 30 and 60 days. It included the visual inspection, the measurement of the droplet diameter (the mean and volume droplet diameter), the polydispersity index, the ζ-potential, the pH value, the electrical conductivity, and the peroxide number. After the preparation and after 60 days, the biological evaluation (the sterility test and the endotoxic test) of the prepared nanoemulsions was carried out. As far as the characterization of the TPN admixture is concerned, it included practically the same parameters. The dynamics of monitoring the characteristics of the TPN admixture was determined on the basis of practical needs of hospitalized patients (0h, 24h and 72h).
The scope and comprehensiveness of this issue indicated the need to divide the doctoral dissertation into three basic stages. The first stage was preliminary. Using the 24-1 fractional factorial design, nanoemulsions for the parenteral nutrition were prepared. They contained either a combination of soybean and fish oil, or a combination of medium chain triglycerides and fish oil. In addition, the type and the amount of an emulsifier used, a number of high-pressure homogenization cycles, and the homogenization pressure, were also varied. The measurement of the above-mentioned parameters for the industrial nanoemulsion was parallely carried out (Lipofundin® MCT/LCT 20%). The objective of this part of the research was to identify critical numerical factors having the most significant effect on the characteristics that define the prepared parenteral nanoemulsions. Parameters that were singled out as the result of this stage of the research (the emulsifier concentration and a number of homogenization cycles) were used as independent variables in the second stage of the research.
Keywords: nanoemulsions, total parenteral nutrition admixtures, high pressure homogenization, design of experiments, optimization, analysis of variance, artificial neural networks
Published in DKUM: 07.06.2019; Views: 11755; Downloads: 17
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