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Green techniques for preparation of red beetroot extracts with enhanced biological potential
Dragana Borjan, Vanja Šeregelj, Darija Cör Andrejč, Lato Pezo, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Željko Knez, Jelena J. Vulić, Maša Knez Marevci, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Red beetroot is well known for its high proportion of betalains, with great potential as functional food ingredients due to their health-promoting properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of processing techniques such as Soxhlet, cold, ultrasound and supercritical fluid extraction on the betalains content and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihyperglycemic activities. Whilst Soxhlet extraction with water has provided the highest yield, the highest content of total phenolics was found in an extract prepared using Soxhlet extraction with 50% ethanol. Amongst eight phenolic compounds detected in the extracts, protocatechuic acid was the most abundant. The concentrations of total phenolics ranged from 12.09 mg/g (ultrasound extraction with 30% methanol) to 18.60 mg/g (Soxhlet extraction with 50% ethanol). The highest anti-inflammatory activity was observed for cold extraction with 50% methanol extract. The high radical scavenging activity of supercritical fluid extracts could be a consequence of nonphenolic compounds. The chemometrics approach was further used to analyse the results to find the “greenest” method for further possible application in the processing of beetroot in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. According to the standard score, the best extraction method was determined to be Soxhlet extraction with 50% ethanol.
Keywords: red beetroot, supercritical fluid extraction, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antihyperglycemic activity, chemometric approach
Published in DKUM: 18.08.2023; Views: 153; Downloads: 11
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P-x,y equilibrium data of the binary systems of 2-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-butanol with carbon dioxide at 313.15 K and 333.15 K
Dragana Borjan, Maša Knez Marevci, Željko Knez, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The ability to predict the behaviour of high-pressure mixtures of carbon dioxide and alcohol is important for industrial purposes. The equilibrium composition of three binary carbon dioxide-alcohol systems was measured at temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K and at pressures of up to 100 bar for carbon dioxide-2-propanol, up to 160 bar for carbon dioxide-1-butanol and up to 150 bar for carbon dioxide-2-butanol. Different equilibrium compositions of carbon dioxide in alcohols were observed despite their similar molecular weight (M2-propanol = 60.100 g mol−1, M1-butanol = 74.121 g mol−1 and M2-butanol = 74.122 g mol−1) and place in the functional hydroxyl group (first or second carbon molecule). It is assumed that the differences in the phase equilibria are due to different vapor pressures, polarities and solute-solute interactions.
Keywords: high-pressure phase equilibrium, carbon dioxide, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol
Published in DKUM: 17.08.2023; Views: 124; Downloads: 11
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Determination of viscosity, density and interfacial tension of the carbon dioxide–isopropanol, argon–isopropanol, sulphur hexafluoride–isopropanol binary systems at 313.15 K and 333.15 K and at elevated pressures
Dragana Borjan, Maja Gračnar, Željko Knez, Maša Knez Marevci, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Viscosity, density, and interfacial tension of three binary systems (carbon dioxide–isopropanol, argon–isopropanol, and sulphur hexafluoride–isopropanol) were measured at temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K and at pressures up to 100 bar for carbon dioxide, and for argon and sulphur hexafluoride up to 500 bar. A vibrating tube densimeter method has been used for density measurements and a variable-volume high-pressure optical view cell with some modifications for the other measurements. The results showed that pressure does not have a high impact on viscosity. Density is found to be a linear function of pressure and temperature and the densities of the investigated binary systems increase with pressure and decrease with temperature. Interfacial tension decreased with the elevated pressure at a constant temperature for all the investigated systems. Accurate prediction of thermodynamic and mass transfer data is fundamental in various engineering and industrial operations to design processes with a higher yield of targeted compounds.
Keywords: viscosity, interfacial tension, carbon dioxide, argon, suplhur hexafluoride, isopropanol
Published in DKUM: 17.08.2023; Views: 147; Downloads: 11
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Sustainable processing of materials using supercritical fluids : doktorska disertacija
Dragana Borjan, 2022, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Supercritical fluids (SCFs) are powerful solvents with many unique properties. They have great potential for many processes, from extraction to chemical reactions and recycling. Accordingly, phase equilibrium data and thermodynamic and transport properties measurements in systems with a supercritical phase, as well as reliable and versatile mathematical models of the phase equilibrium thermodynamics, are needed for the process design and economic feasibility studies. The dissertation focuses on the benefits of supercritical fluid technology and consists of three main sections. The first section includes studies of the phase equilibria of the binary gas-alcohol and gas-urea derivatives. The influence of pressure and temperature on the system behaviour (solubility, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, melting point curve) was investigated. Most of the experiments were carried out with a high-pressure optical view cell, with minor modifications of the apparatus and measurement principle to determine mentioned thermodynamic and transport properties. The second part of the dissertation deals with the recovery of extracts from natural materials. Special interest is oriented towards supercritical fluid extracts, characterised by strong biological activities, especially antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Supercritical fluid extraction has been performed on a semi-continuous apparatus (at pressures of 150 bar and 250 bar and temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K for oregano extraction; and at pressures of 100 bar and 300 bar and temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K for red beetroot extraction) and various methods such as the microdilution method and the DPPH method were used to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. In the third part, an overview of different methods for recycling carbon fibre reinforced composites is given, including chemical recycling with supercritical fluids. This field has not been well explored, and the approach is relatively new but very interesting from a sustainable point of view. For an economically feasible process design, the thermodynamic and mass transfer data have to be determined. The principles of the future lab- and pilot-scale operations demand these supporting data be known. The results obtained in the frame of this study represent the high added value in the scientific field. They are essential to design and modify processes that yield products that cannot be achieved with conventional production processes.
Keywords: supercritical fluids, alcohols, urea, phase equilibria, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, modified capillary method, isolation methods, supercritical fluid extraction, pharmacological activity, carbon fiber reinforced composites, recycling techniques
Published in DKUM: 11.10.2022; Views: 581; Downloads: 111
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