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41.
In vitro selection and characterization of new probiotic candidates from table olive microbiota
Cristian Botta, Tomaž Langerholc, Avrelija Cencič, Luca Cocolin, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: To date, only a few studies have investigated the complex microbiota of table olives in order to identify new probiotic microorganisms, even though this food matrix has been shown to be a suitable source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two hundred and thirty eight LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, and isolated from Nocellara Etnea table olives, have been screened in this survey through an in vitro approach. A simulation of transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, together with autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, have been decisive in reducing the number of LAB to 17 promising probiotics. None of the selected strains showed intrinsic resistances towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics and were therefore accurately characterized on an undifferentiated and 3D functional model of the human intestinal tract made up of H4-1 epithelial cells. As far as the potential colonization of the intestinal tract is concerned, a high adhesion ratio was observed for Lb. plantarum O2T60C (over 9%) when tested in the 3D functional model, which closely mimics real intestinal conditions. The stimulation properties towards the epithelial barrier integrity and the in vitro inhibition of L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion have also been assessed. Lb. plantarum S1T10A and S11T3E enhanced trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and therefore the integrity of the polarized epithelium in the 3D model. Moreover, S11T3E showed the ability to inhibit L. monocytogenes invasion in the undifferentiated epithelial model. The reduction in L. monocytogenes infection, together with the potential enhancement of barrier integrity and an adhesion ratio that was above the average in the 3D functional model (6.9%) would seem to suggest the Lb. plantarum S11T3E strain as the most interesting candidate for possible in vivo animal and human trials.
Keywords: antibiotics, bacteria pathogen, cell metabolism, olives, probiotics, digestion
Published: 19.06.2017; Views: 347; Downloads: 175
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42.
The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health
Avrelija Cencič, Walter Chingwaru, 2010, review article

Abstract: New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a healyh, environmental and social impact. The EU is fighting diseases characteristics of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relatingto aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discused. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvment in nutritional, immunologic and physiologic functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health arealso highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional call models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.
Keywords: nutraceutical, functional food, food supplement, intestinal health, probiotic, intestinal cell models, gut research
Published: 22.06.2017; Views: 478; Downloads: 216
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43.
Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama) extracts
Walter Chingwaru, Gyebi Duodu, Yolandi Van Zyl, Schoeman, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Minnaar, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama) – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 6538), Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (clinical) and Candida albicans (ATCC 2091). We performed the broth microdilution test for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a method to determine survival of microorganisms after in vitro co-incubation with the highest concentrations of T. esculentum extracts, followed by assessment of colony counts. Ethanol and methanol (phenolic) bean extracts exhibited higher potency against bacteria and yeast than aqueous extracts. Marama bean seed coat crude ethanolic extract (MSCE) and seed coat polyphenolic fractions, especially soluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), were highly antimicrobial against M. terrae, C. diphtheriae and C. albicans. All marama bean polyphenolic fractions, namely cotyledon acidified methanol fraction (MCAM), seed coat acidified methanol fraction (MSCAM), cotyledon insoluble-bound fraction (MCIB), seed coat insoluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), cotyledon-free polyphenolic fraction (MCFP) and seed coat free polyphenolic fraction (MSCFP) had high antimicrobial effects as shown by low respective MIC values between 0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. These MIC values were comparable to those of control antimicrobials used: amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL) and cesfulodin (0.1 mg/mL) against C. diphtheriae, streptomycin (1.0 mg/mL) and gentamicin (0.4 mg/mL) against M. terrae, and amphotericin B (0.05 mg/mL) against C. albicans. Marama seed coat soluble-esterified fraction (MSCS) had closer activity to that of cefsulodin against M. terrae. High amounts of phenolic substances, such as gallic acid, especially in the seed coats, as well as high amounts of phytosterols, lignans, certain fatty acids and peptides (specifically protease inhibitors) in the cotyledons contributed to the observed antibacterial and anticandidal activities. Marama extracts, especially phenolic and crude seed coat extracts, had high multi-species antibacterial and anticandidal activities at concentrations comparable to that of some conventional drugs; these extracts have potential use as microbicides.
Keywords: marama, Tylosema esculentum, antibacterial activity, anticandidal activity
Published: 07.08.2017; Views: 335; Downloads: 158
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44.
Sanitarno-mikrobiološke preiskave bolnišničnih tekstilij, negovanih v pralnicah
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Avrelija Cencič, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: V pralnicah se ne moremo izogniti obstoju mikroorganizmov v nečistem delu, saj zaradi izvora tekstilij vstopi v postopek pranja veliko število mikroorganizmov zelo različnega izvora, od fekalnih mikroorganizmov iz posteljnine do okuženih tekstilij iz različnih oddelkov bolnišnic, ki lahko vsebujejo različne vrste patogenih bakterij, gliv in virusov. Ker so uporabniki bolnišničnih tekstilij običajno bolniki s šibkim imunskim sistemom, jih moramo zaščititi pred okužbami iz slabo opranih tekstilij, zato oprane bolnišnične tekstilij ne smejo vsebovati povzročiteljev bolezni. Čeprav je v prvi vrsti pomembno, da ima postopek pranja razkuževalni učinek, je zelo pomembno tudi, da pri nadaljnji obdelavi opranih tekstilij (sortiranje, likanje, zlaganje, pakiranje) ne pride do rekontaminacije opranih tekstilij zaradi neustrezne higiene v čistem delu pralnice. V raziskavi smo v petih pralnicah bolnišničnih tekstilij izvedli sanitarno-mikrobiološko preiskavo opranih tekstilij na različnih kritičnih kontrolnih točkah v čistem delu pralnice in rezultate primerjali s tolerančnimi vrednostmi za bolnišnične tekstilije, ki jih je izdal RAL, nemški inštitut za zagotavljanje kakovosti in izdajanje certifikatov, in temeljijo na predpisih Robert-Koch inštituta. Iz rezultatov je razvidno, da je doseganje primerne stopnje higiene tekstilij v prvi vrsti odvisno od razkuževalnega učinka postopka pranja, kakor tudi od rednih ukrepov čiščenja in razkuževanja vseh površin, prostorov, tehnične opreme itd., ki pridejo v stik z opranimi tekstilijami in rednega izobraževanja osebja o pravilni higieni rok pri vzdrževanju higiene v pralnici.
Keywords: tekstilije, zagotavljanje higiene, pralnice, razkuževanje
Published: 31.08.2017; Views: 328; Downloads: 43
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45.
Impact of salt reduction on the number of microorganisms and a sensory analysis for Kranjska sausages during their shelf-life
Livija Tušar, Irena Leonida Kropf, Avrelija Cencič, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Salt is an important ingredient in the production of meat product. Any reduction of salt requires a special treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salt reduction on the growth of microorganisms in Kranjska sausages during their shell-life and to carry out a sensory assessment. The 18 lots of sausages were prepared under salt-reduced (1.6%) and control (2.3%) salt concentrations, directly on the production line. A total of 85 sausages were analysed and the data were used for the comparisons of groups (ANOVA) and to detect the significant variables (polynomial models) influenced on the total number of microorganisms (TNMs). The significant differences were determined between the lots (representing the microbiological status of the stuffing), between the salt-reduced samples and control samples, and between the different humidity levels. The correlations and significant relationships were determined between the TNMs and the lots, the salt concentrations, and the relative humidity. The polynomial models were to general to be used for the prediction. For sensory analysis implemented on 40th day 18 sausages were assessed. The reduction of salt resulted in lower scores in the sensory evaluation. The less-salted sausages contained more microorganisms.
Keywords: Kranjska sausage, reduction of salt, sensory evaluation, models, relative humidity
Published: 14.11.2017; Views: 403; Downloads: 197
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46.
Potential role of probiotics for sustainability in rural India
Kislay Roy, Tomaž Langerholc, Avrelija Cencič, 2010, review article

Abstract: Probiotics (greek "for life") have been recognized and explored for over a century, Metchnikoff's pioneering work was converted into commercial reality in the 1950s, and since then many probiotics' benefits have been described. Nowadays they have already found place as a food supplement and as a preventive or curative drug. The term probiotics describes a variety of microorganisms which can colonize the host and have health improving effects on it. Since it is a natural and comparably affordable product even for people with low incomes, it could be introduced into the diet of people living in the Indian rural areas. The biggest obstacles for this are education about their use and technology to prepare them in a convenient form for domestic use. Regular use could improve the quality of live and reduce the dependence on drugs and medical expenses.
Keywords: probiotics, sustainability, India
Published: 29.03.2018; Views: 137; Downloads: 35
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47.
48.
Novejši biooznačevalci in spremljanje znotrajceličnih signalnih poti pri avtoimunskih boleznih
Aleš Goropevšek, Evgenija Homšak, Maksimiljan Gorenjak, Ivan Malešič, Ivan Krajnc, Avrelija Cencič, 2008, review article

Abstract: Izhodišča: Avtoimunske in kronične vnetne bolezni se še vedno pogosto zdravijo le z nespecifično imunosupresijo, ki ne prinaša ozdravitve. Spoznanje, da so citokini TNF in IFN-alfa bistveni v patogenezi bolezni, kot sta revmatoidni artritis in sistemski lupus eritematozus, pomeni napredek v razumevanju avtoimunskih bolezni. Znotrajcelične signalne poti, ki se aktivirajo kot odgovor na te klinično pomembne citokine, prenašajo signale s kinazno fosforilacijo proteinov in so bistvene za delovanje celic imunskega sistema. Malo je znanega o spremembah teh signalnih poti pri avtoimunskih boleznih. Nedavne klinične raziskave so pokazale, da se spoznanja iz živalskih modelov ne morejo neposredno prenesti na človeka. Za spremljanje aktivnosti bolezni in napoved odziva na novejše zdravljenje je potrebno razviti nova orodja za spremljanje humanega imunskega odziva. Obetajoče orodje v prihodnosti so novo odkriti biomarkerji. Še več si obetamo od pristopov, ki temeljijo na spremljanju signalnih poti na celični ravni. Zaključki: Razviti so bili biokemični analizni sistemi, ki temeljijo na pretočni citometriji in omogočajo profiliranje kinaz in fosfoproteinov na ravni posameznih celic. To bo omogočilo študije signalnih poti pri avtoimunskih in kroničnih vnetnih boleznih, saj so analizni sistemi prilagojeni prav celicam imunskega sistema, npr. v periferni krvi. Prvi rezultati kažejo značilne fosfo-signature citokinov (interferonov) v imunskih celicah bolnikov s SLE. Možnost spremljanja signalnih poti na celični ravni lahko prinese razvoj novih diagnostičnih možnosti, predvsem za spremljanje aktivnosti bolezni in vodenja zdravljenja. Rezultati študij pa lahko nakažejo tudi nove tarče, bolj specifičnega in manj toksičnega, zdravljenja z inhibitorji kinaz.
Keywords: SLE, pretočna citometrija, citokinske signalne poti, IFN-alfa
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 880; Downloads: 44
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49.
DOLOČANJE ANTITUMORSKE AKTIVNOSTI NEKATERIH KETONUKLEOZIDOV
Tomaž Vodenik, 2009, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Ugotavljali smo odzivnost oziroma rast Caco-2 celic in toksicni vpliv ketonukleozidnih derivatov ter 5-FU. Pri testiranju smo uporabili tri razlicne ketonukleozidne substance v razlicnih koncentracijah in kontrolno 5- FU. Ucinkovina 1,5-Di-O-4-flour-2-N4 benzoil citozin-6-troponin je delovala toksicno in zavirala rast pri koncentracijah; 0,1 mg/mL, 0,05 mg/mL ter pri 0,025 mg/mL. Toksicno zaviralno je delovala tudi ucinkovina 1,3-Di-O-4-flour-2-N4-benzoil citozin-6-troponin pri koncentracijah; 0,1 mg/mL, 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025mg/mL, 0,0125 mg/mL. Prav tako je zavirala kontrolna ucinkovina 5-FU rast, saj je vecina celic propadla.
Keywords: Kljucne besede: ketonukleozidi / nukleozidni analogi / antitumorska aktivnost / Caco-2 celice / celicne kulture / gojišca
Published: 01.09.2009; Views: 1601; Downloads: 100
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